the exodus
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The Illustrated Exodus

They have been looking at the wrong places.

The Origin of the State
The Amalekites
Queen of Sheba
The Christian Coalition
Chart OK
Old Kingdom
Chariot Wheels
IDing King Tut
The Biblical Exodus
Long Time Periods
Still in Egypt
Noferhotep the Pharaoh of the Exodus
The Ten Plagues
The Route of the Exodus
Where is Mount Sinai?
The Account of the Exodus - Deliverance
The Underwater Landbridge
Geological Features at Nuweiba
The Hyksos - Amalekites
Something to ponder
The Physical Evaluation of the Exodus Event
What happened at Sinai? - The 10 Commandments
Moses and Aaron
The Spiritual Angle
The Theology of Moses - Eye for Eye
Mercy Abundant Everywhere
One More Look at Moses' Three Statements
Biblical, Sequential, Geographical Summary
From Moses to Joshua
Notes & References
A Study Outline
Der Auszug
Exodus Route
Remains of the Ark
Cities of Ash
USA in the 1860's
Feast of Tabernacles
Seeing Fr. Mountain
Step by Step


Our horizon as to the Old and Middle Kingdom dynasties has widened when Damien published his paper on the `Old Kingdom'. There we learn that the Old and Middle Kingdom were not separate ages but existed parallel to each other. So we read:

"And the Egyptians made the children of Israel to serve with rigour: And they made their lives bitter with hard bondage, in mortar, and in brick, and in all manner of service, wherein they made them serve, with rigour."Exodus 1:13-14 [10]

And so it is that the Exodus brought on the end of the Pyramid Age when the Israelite work-force left the land of their servitude and signs of their quick departure have been noted by archaeologists and are now a matter of record. Yes, man built pyramids, and God builds pyramids: the pyramids of man are heaps of rocks, tiny hillocks on a sandy plain; the pyramids of the Lord are the Alps, Andes, Rocky Mts. and Himalayas.

The historicity of The Biblical Exodus has long been a subject of discussion among interested people. While we have no space to repeat the various views we can present a number of reasons why the Exodus event, or legend as some would describe it, is so difficult to pinpoint in the pages of Egyptian history. Of course the primary reason for that situation is chronology. Since the majority of people subscribe to the conventional scenario for the sequence of the Egyptian Dynasties, it is no wonder that they cannot locate an event such as the Exodus on the BC time scale.[12]

In the various papers we discuss at some length a revised view of the chronology of the Middle Eastern ancient world and in particular of Egypt. Applying our chronology, based on 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 written evidence, to the Exodus explains many otherwise unsolvable historical problems and shows the solutions. As we show that the Exodus occurred about 30-35 years after the end of the 12th Dynasty, which also has to be moved closer to our time, the background to it falls into the time of the 13th Dynasty. However, not at the time of the first rulers of this the 13th Dynasty, but at a much later period of its `existence'. The early 13th Dynasty rulers represent princes, governors and officials of Egypt whose activities began even before the start of the 12th Dynasty, lasted during the length of the 12th Dynasty and continued on afterwards for the already mentioned 30-35 years and throughout the period of the judges. Manetho's 13th through 17th dynasty list of names according to the Turin Papyrus contains about 66 names, while his list through the Sothis King List contains 46 names. Textbooks may admit about 11 of these names for that (13th) dynasty. The 14th dynasty has one name, the 15th dynasty about 7 names and the 16th anywhere from 2 to 9 names and the 17th may show about 5 names. These old kingdom individuals together would span the period from about 1850 through 1050 B.C. The foreign Hyksos invasion did not occur until closer to the end of the Sothis List rulers. [13] In our time line charts we have left out the Egyptian successions between the 12th and 18th dynasties, for they are guess work for anyone trying to invent the history before written aids or similar more definite clues are available. For a while now, our most likely pharaohs of the Exodus were Koncharis (13th dyn.) or Chenephres, but now we think that it was Neferhotep I.

According to the biblical record Moses, the son of Amram and Jochebed (Ex. 6:20) led his people [15] at a predetermined, prophesied date out of Egypt. Even as the stars and planets in the vast orbits follow their appointed paths, God's purposes know no haste and no delay. Through the symbols of the great darkness and the smoking furnace (Gen. 15), God had revealed to Abraham the bondage of Israel in Egypt, and had declared that the time of their sojourning should be four hundred years. "Afterward," He said, "shall they come out with great substance." Genesis 15:14. Against that word, all the power of Pharaoh's proud empire battled in vain. On "the self-same day" appointed in the divine promise, "it came to pass, that all the hosts of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt." Exodus 12:41. So too in heaven's council the hour for the coming of Christ had been determined. When the great clock of time pointed to that hour, Jesus was born in Bethlehem.[16] At the time of the tenth plague, Israel was girded and ready to exit Egypt, including the non-Israelite mixed multitude/people ( Exodus 12: 37, 38) followed along, indicating that, indeed, Egypt at this time was not a favorable land to live in. This "rabble", as some had called it, or mixed multitude/mingled people we find mentioned again in Ezekiel 30:5; Jeremiah 25: 20. [20] When Israel left, we are told, they left with gold and silver and clothing, Ex. 12:35, NKJV.

Long Time Periods
These dates are key dates to determine other longer range dates like the following: According to the scriptural record, the Exodus also took place at the exact appointed time stated to Abraham, Genesis 15:13, who was born in 1950 BC. We read, and God said unto Abram, "know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; The 430 and 400 year time spans explained and they shall afflict them 400 years." Please notice the exact wording, the promise, the 400 years, do not begin until there was a proper seed from Abraham, namely when Isaac was weaned at age five, Gen. 21:8. As to chronology, the period after the promise to Abraham when he was 75 yrs old, as viewed by Paul (Gal. 3:17), until to the giving of the law on Sinai, is given as 430 years. The 400 years can only be derived, and scripture - between what God says and what Paul says - seen to agree, when we use the time after Isaac was born, and he was weaned at age five (Gen 21:8) (when Abraham was 105 yrs of age), to the giving of the law at Sinai, which then calculates to 400 years, Gen. 15:13 (1845 - 400 = 1445). [22] Thus the 400 and 430 year periods do not contradict each other. The time frame would be between 1875 and 1445 BC, 430 years. Accordingly Abraham lived between 1950-1775 BC, 175 years, Gen. 25:7.

Explaining another aspect, Genesis 15:13 mentions the 400 years of affliction leaving it unsaid that this would mean only the last portion of these 400 years.
Through the symbols of the great darkness and the smoking furnace, God had revealed to Abraham the bondage of Israel in Egypt, and had declared that the time of their sojourning should be four hundred years. "Afterward", He said, "shall they come out with great substance." Gen. 15:14. As the eventual freedom of Israel from the land of their oppression was foretold, so too the learned apostle Paul observed, against that word, all the power of Pharaoh's proud empire battled in vain and similarly should Christ be serving his people on that exact date predicted in the scriptures. On "the self-same day" appointed in the divine promise, "it came to pass, that all the hosts of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt." Ex. 12:41; Galatians 4: 4, 5; Daniel 9.

Still in Egypt
Why did Egypt through Pharaoh treat Israel so terribly? Just because their population multiplied so rapidly, Ex. 1:7?

Ever since Joseph's wise and gentle administration, Egyptians had become aware of the true God in heaven. When Jacob entered Egypt, the number of males, including Joseph and his two sons, was 69 - all of who would marry, have children and achieve the prestigious increase in their population (consider offspring of 8 per family). The census of the Israelites was taken twice between the Exodus and the Conquest (Ex. 30:12; Num. 1:2). The Lord God was ever so slowly working on the hearts of those who came in contact with that spirit through Joseph's influence and how it influenced the heart of the king, and the servant of the king who was responsible for the wine. Ever so slowly Satan's rule was being challenged and the enemy of all that is of God got busy to turn things his way. The people of the promised seed became slaves in Egypt for many years, from shortly after the death of Joseph to when Moses was around 80 years of age, 1589-1445, some 144 years minus the years of Joseph's good pharaoh, ca. 125 years slavery.

Noferhotep I. of the 13th Dynasty was the Pharaoh of the Exodus

Since we know now with good certainty that #22 Noferhotep/Neferhotep I of the Turin list was the Pharaoh of the Exodus, and that his son Wahneferhotep never ruled, but that his brother (#21) Sobkhotpe/Sebekhotep IV took the throne as suggested by the work of Professor Manfred Bietak of Austria and David Downs. Even conventional history books contain this king. They give him 11 years between 1741-1730, which must be corrected to 1456-1445 BC. [23] Prof. Bietak found that a great population of Semitic slaves lived around Kahun and Gurob, south of Cairo, during the latter half of the 12th Dynasty and also at Tel ed-Daba in the northeastern delta near Tanis. He also found a papyrus slave list with numerous typical Semitic names. On one list there were 48 Semitic sounding names from 77 legible names. Graves and boxes underneath houses with dead babies around Tell ed-Daba, suggest that those were the areas where a portion of the Israelite slave laborers lived. - In the 13th Dynasty, during the reign of Noferhotep I, the Semitic slaves suddenly departed from Tel ed-Daba and Kahun. "Completion of the king's pyramid was not the reason why Kahun's inhabitants eventually deserted [Kahun], abandoning their tools and other possessions in local shops and houses ... The quantity, range, and type of articles of everyday use which were left behind suggest that the departure was sudden and unpremeditated." [24]

When the time had come that God looked upon Israel to bring them out of Egypt, Moses and his brother Aaron were to bring the message to the slave master. And about Aaron the Bible says, "And the Lord said to Moses, See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh: and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet." Exodus 7:1. - So what is a prophet? Is it someone who tells the future? No, the primary meaning of a prophet is to be a spokesman. In our example someone who speaks, for Moses could not do everything by himself. Since Neferhotep I, the Pharaoh of Egypt had stated his opinion, "Who is the Lord, that I should obey his voice to let Israel go? I know not Jehovah, neither will I let Israel go." Ex. 5:2, and as a result pharaoh increased the burden upon his slaves so that they blamed Moses as if he was responsible for their increased exertion. But God showed Moses that He would cause pharaoh to let Israel go by means of plagues.

The Ten Plagues

What were these plagues about?

  1. The Plague of blood. The water in the river and in the cisterns of their houses turned to blood for seven days, Ex. 7:17. - The Nile River was the source of their food and wealth. They worshipped it (Gen. 41), but now their river turned to blood, the fish died and it became offensive to smell. Pharaoh fatefully did not yield.
  2. The Plague of frogs, Ex. 8:2. The river that had been blood, from it came now the plague of frogs, to the Egyptians a holy creature (Heqit) [25], which would enter into everything and cause much consternation and discomfort. Even the magicians could apparently, but not really, conjure up frogs, but they could not remove them. Pharaoh further hardened his heart. Each time that would be his reaction, would make it harder to face reality, and become right with God.
  3. The Plague of lice, Ex. 8:16. This plague the magicians could not duplicate, their power was ended and they knew, "This was the finger of God." The king remained unmoved.
  4. The Plague of flies, Ex. 8:24. Some flying insects were also sacred creatures to the Egyptians which used them in their displays and writing system. These flies were not house flies, they were large and venomous. Their bite was very painful to man and beast corrupting man and beasts, Ex. 8:24. Such a flying insect the Egyptians used in their winged solar disk of `Her-Behutet' .
  5. The Plague of the murrain, Ex. 9:3. The murrain was a grievous sore destroying their sacred animals and their beasts of burden, but not the animals of the Israelites. Pharaoh sent his people to Goshen to ascertain that, Ex. 9:7. Yet, even the patience of the Israelites might be tried, seeing all these plagues, but no success for their release from grinding slavery. What did God do? God instructed Moses to take ashes of the furnace, and "sprinkle it toward heaven (into the wind) in the sight of Pharaoh." Ex. 9:8. Why? This act was deeply significant. We recall that 400 years before, God had shown to Abraham the future oppression of His people, under the figure of a smoking furnace and a burning lamp, Gen. 15:17, and by that explained to Abraham that his descendants would be oppressed but then released with great substance. In Egypt Israel had long languished in the `furnace of affliction'. This act of Moses was an assurance to Israel that God was mindful of His covenant, and that the time for their deliverance had come.
  6. The Plague of a boil, Ex. 9:9. At this stage, the plague of the murrain was swiftly followed by that of boils. As the fine ash particles blew over the land of Egypt, and wherever they settled on people and beasts, painful boils would break forth designed to see the folly of their ways, but pharaoh would not yield. - Israel was permitted to experience grinding slavery and see these plagues so that they might not be deceived concerning the debasing influence of idolatry which God hates, since idols made of wood, stone or metal could not do anything nor help or hinder anyone, for they were a lie of clever trick makers and merchants. (1Sam. 15:23; Acts 17:15; 1. Cor. 10:14).
  7. The Plague of hail, thunder and fire, Ex. 9:22. Heavy rain and especially hail were very unusual in Egypt and what came had never happened before. This plague was also a test for they had been warned that it would kill their livestock if not protected. The storm came as predicted - thunder, hail and fire mingled with it, "very grievous, such as there was none like it in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation." Ex. 9:24. But all who believed, gathered in their cattle, while those who despised the warning left them in the field where they died. Thus the people were tested to show how many had been led to fear, to respect and honor God who manifestly displayed His great power. Only the land of Goshen was spared thus showing that God controls the earth and the elements obey His voice, and that the only safety is in obedience to Him.
  8. The Plague of locusts, Ex. 10:4. The livestock was dead bringing on much shortage in food for the Egyptians. Now that the plague of locusts came, also their produce in the fields were devoured leaving them with no food. This almost caused the release of Israel, yet, when Moses took the plague away, so pharaoh's involuntary relenting vanished. He had tried to destroy Israel by hard labour, yet when he met Moses he pretended to have a deep interest in their welfare and a tender care for their little ones. However, his real object was to keep the women and children as surety for the return of the men from their sacrificing an offering unto the Lord, Ex. 10:7-11. - Finally the Hebrews were becoming more confident in their release, yet the Egyptians knew their country was destroyed economically (Ex. 10:7) and they feared that their slaves would rise up against them and avenge the wrongs done to them. Everywhere men were asking with bated breath, What will come next?
  9. The Plague of darkness, Ex. 10:21. This plague brought on a sudden darkness so thick and black that it seemed one `could feel it.' Not only was there no light, but breathing was very difficult too for three days, Ex. 10:23. The sun and moon were objects of worship to the Egyptians. In this mysterious darkness the people and their gods alike were affected by the power that had undertaken to free His people from bondage. As fearful as it was , this judgment is an evidence of God's compassion and His unwillingness to destroy - they all survived it. He would give the people time for reflection and repentance before bringing upon them the last and most terrible 10th plague.
  10. The Plague of the death of the firstborn, Ex. 11:5. Pharaoh's successor son died in this plague, so did all the first born among all his people.

These plagues are a pattern. Ten plagues for the Law of God and seven last plagues in the Book of Revelation for God's holy seventh day, which is beeing trampled underfoot. Satan, not knowing the end from the beginning, had his plans over the ensuing centuries turned into the very means which led to Christ's suffering and death on the cross - Satan's assurance that he would be destroyed in the end by the Son of God who came to redeem mankind.

And Moses said to Pharaoh, "Thou must give us also sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we may sacrifice unto the Lord our God. Our cattle also shall go with us; there shall not an hoof be left behind; for thereof must we take to serve the Lord our God; and we know not with what we must serve the Lord, until we come thither. But the Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart, and he would not let them go." Exodus 10:25-27 [26].

But when the 10th plague struck, all Egypt was in an uproar and pharaoh let Israel go.

The Bible tells us that the Israelites under Moses left their domestic quarters in a hurry.

"And it came to pass that at midnight the Lord smote all the firstborn ... And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians ... And he called for Moses and by night and said, Rise up, and get you forth from among my people ... And the Egyptians were urgent upon the people that they might send them out of the land in haste ... " Exodus 12:29-33

The window of opportunity was short, Israel departed without delay from their land of bondage. Among the Egyptians it was rumored that the slave nation was not in the desert to worship, but instead were headed across the Sinai to the Red Sea. Pharaoh called his counselors who told him, that the slaves were fleeing. They now opined that the death of the first born was not due to the power of the God of the Hebrews. They now held that the plagues were due to natural phenomena. Now they lamented loudly, why have we let them go? Having procured the best advise available, Pharaoh changed his mind, called up his army, and all the great men of his kingdom, including the priests to make sure that their gods were on their side, and with many chariots and soldiers chased after them. Wadi crossing the Sinai Peninsula But Israel had an advantage for God led them by a pillar of clouds in day time, acting like an air conditioner so to speak and a pillar of fire at night, to provide light and warmth, so they would loose no time but get to a point where their deliverance would occur. (Ex. 13:21)

Strong from hard work all their life, Israel marched night and day until they reached the other side of Sinai on the seventh day. The Bible states that no one among the people was allowed to eat leavened bread. Only unleavened bread was allowed. This way their physical well being would not be hampered by possible stomach cramps. Their march was to be without a break and its length was measured by the limitation for how long their unleavened, baked bread would be edible. Exodus 12:15-20; 13:7.

Therefore, Israel traversing the Sinai Peninsula occurred within those seven days, Ex. 13:18. They did not have to drive oxen pulling wagons, or find sources of water and food during those few days. Their sustenance they carried with them and the pillar of clouds protected them from the excessive heat during the day, and the pillar of fire for light at night.

The Route of the Exodus

Leaving Egypt [28], guided by the pillar of clouds, from the Nile delta region the Israelites headed first south (Ex. 13:17-18), as shown on the map, along the vicinity of the shore of the northern Gulf of Suez and then east into the desert of the Sinai peninsula to Etham at the edge of the desert on the Arabian side without ever stopping. [30] At some point in Wadi Watir (which leads toward Nuweiba Beach[32]), God told Moses:

"Speak unto the children of Israel that they ( `shub') turn and encamp before Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea..." Exodus 14:2

The `turn' (Hebr. `shub') must have been made close to where the thinner yellow line turns north, as if to walk around the Gulf of Aqaba to Mount Sinai, but God stopped Moses and led them down that eastern Wadi toward that rocky defile which is called today `Nuweiba Beach', a place that must have been familiar to Moses. The route of the Israelites toward the Gulf of Aqaba, exagerated. The walk around the Gulf would have taken much longer, but God never had that direction in mind.

Now, if there are some who speculate that Israel could have overtaken the Egyptians at this point, by surrounding them or getting behind them and squeezing them at the beach, we must say `No'. Israel depended on the Lord to make decisions, not those of self-willed man. Moses was a man of God, he died to self daily as we must, for the coming of the Lord is very near. Pharaoh, if he would not have seen anymore foot prints in the sand, would have known that Israel had left the direct path to the beach. Already when Moses worked for Jethro of Al Bad, God had planned that Moses would lead his people to Mount Horeb/ Jebel al Lawz /Agar in Arabia and that the sea would part to accomplish that. [We still say Mt. Sinai because that name has been associated with the events we describe, however, the true physical Mt. Sinai has nothing to do with the Exodus, Jebel el Lawz Mt. Sinai, Mt. Horeb does.]

Where is Mount Sinai?
Here is the biblical record:

"... Moses fled from the face of Pharaoh and dwellt in the land of Midian ..." Exodus 2:15, where the Midianites lived, the father in law of Moses, Numbers 10:29.
"Now Moses kept the flock of Jethro his father in law, the priest of Midian: and he led the flock to the backside of the desert, and came to the mountain of God, even to Horeb." Exodus 3:1

We may understand `... the backside of the desert' as looking from the Nile region toward the east. The desert then would refer to the Sinai Peninsula and not the western Sahara. The backside of the Sinai would then be the eastern most region up against the Gulf of Aqaba (probably on the Arabian side) and perhaps the continued rift valley up toward the Dead Sea..

"... When thou hast brought forth the people out of Egypt, ye shall serve God upon this mountain." Exodus 3:12

In the days of the apostle Paul, people still knew where Midian was located [36].

"For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia ..." Galatians 4:25

"God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near ... but ... led the people about, through the way of the wilderness of the Red Sea ... turn and encamp before Pi-ha-hi-roth between Migdal and the sea, over against Baalzephon: before it ye shall encamp by the sea. ... For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are entangled in the land, the wilderness has shut them in." Ex. 13:18-20; 14:2-3

After the Egyptians had buried their dead, Pharaoh repented that he had let Israel go. His counselors and mighty men tried to account for their bereavement. They would not admit that the plagues were judgments of God, and therefore they pursued after the Israelites to overtake them and return them into slavery. Having been blinded by false religion, they could not distinguish truth from error. They comprehended not that they could not win against the invisible God, the only true Creator God of Heaven, for they thought of mere man as gods. They did not realize or believe that man is not alone in the universe, but that this earth only is acquainted with sin.

Pharaoh knew that from Nuweiba Beach there was no escape. He was confident that he could corner the Israelites and return them to Egypt. At first, perhaps Moses thought that he would have to lead his people by way of Ezion Geber to Jebel al Lawz. But God had plans to demonstrate his might and power. He directed for his chosen people to turn toward Nuweiba, just like Pharaoh anticipated. This "turn" occurred near where the two yellow lines fork off.

"... wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of Egypt?" Exodus 14:11

The words `out of Egypt' indicate that Israel would leave the very ground of Egypt, the Sinai Peninsula which belonged to Egypt, and be in another country. The approach to Nuweiba Beach

As the satellite map shows, the mountainous terrain of the Sinai in this region allows only a narrow path toward what is known today as `Nuweiba', a sandy beach enclosed on all sides by sheer rocks. Today there is a road hugging the rocky coast going south, in ancient times it did not exist. The Sinai peninsula was Egypt in Old Kingdom times. Numerous army lookout posts doted the mountain tops and we can assume that the Egyptians had developed a system of mirror or smoke signals from mountain top station to mountain top station to pass on information to headquarters back near today's Cairo and along the length of the road, so Pharaoh knew exactly where the Israelites were.[37] Turning back, the Israelites saw the approaching chariots of Pharaoh. Views are on file what the mountain road looks like from the vantage point of the beach.

"... the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh ... and overtook them encamping by the sea, beside Pi-ha-hi-roth, before Baal-zephon ... And the pillar of clouds came between the camp of Israel: and it was a cloud and darkness to them ..."Ex. 14:9,20

Frederick A. Bridgman painting These places did not figure again in the experience of Israel for they left them behind, on the western side of the Red Sea [38], in Egypt. Josephus presents the Exodus account this way:

"Now when the Egyptians had overtaken the Hebrews, they prepared to fight them, and by their multitude they drove them into a narrow place ... They also seized on the passages by which they imagined the Hebrews might fly, shutting them up between inaccessible precipices and the sea; for there was on each side a ridge of mountains that terminated at the sea, which were impassable by reason of their roughness, and obstructed their flight." [40]

The account of Josephus seems to fit the approaches to Nuweiba Beach and its rocky condition better than any other locality. The only escape route left was through the sea. And so it was when the Lord commanded Moses to lift up the rod over the sea that the waters divided and created a dry path of escape for Israel (Exod. 14:22). This miracle is an indictment for all slave holders and oppressors in the world, for all those who conspire to direct human affairs according to their wants, past and present, that their wickedness is known of God and He will surely hold them accountable for all their evil deeds. Nuweiba Beach has meaning far beyond that one event taking place there so long ago. Its shadow reaches even into our time.

Numerous parallels surround these events and people related to the migration of the tribes of Israel out of Egypt and from there into the promised land. Moses was a `savior' for his people, so was (Hebr) Joshua (Grk. Jesus) whose name means the 'Jehovah is salvation', son of Nun, which means `eternal'. Both Moses and Joshua are a type for Jesus Christ the Savior from this world of sin.

The Account of the Exodus - A Lesson of Deliverance in the Future

Across a dreary, desertlike expanse they journeyed. Already they began to wonder whither their course would lead; they were becoming weary with the toilsome way, and in some hearts began to arise a fear of pursuit by the Egyptians. But the cloud went forward, and they followed. And now the Lord directed Moses to turn aside into a rocky defile, and encamp beside the sea. It was revealed to him that Pharaoh would pursue them, but that God would be honored in their deliverance.

In Egypt the report was spread that the children of Israel, instead of tarrying to worship in the desert, were pressing on toward the Red Sea. Pharaoh's counselors declared to the king that their bondmen had fled, never to return. The people deplored their folly in attributing the death of the first-born to the power of God. Their great men, recovering from their fears, accounted for the plagues as the result of natural causes. "Why have we done this, that we have let Israel go from serving us?" was the bitter cry.

Pharaoh collected his forces, "six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt," horsemen, captains, and foot soldiers. The king himself, attended by the great men of his realm, headed the attacking army. To secure the favor of the gods, and thus ensure the success of their undertaking, the sorcerers, magicians and priests, and all the important men of his realm also accompanied them, "... his servants ... his people ... his horsemen ... his army ... all the host of Pharaoh," Ex. 14:5-7, 9, 28; Numb. 33:4. The king was resolved to intimidate the Israelites by a grand display of his power. The Egyptians feared lest their forced submission to the God of Israel should subject them to the derision of other nations; but if they should now go forth with a great show of power and bring back the fugitives, they would redeem their glory, as well as recover the services of their bondmen.

The Hebrews were encamped beside the sea, whose waters presented a seemingly impassablePharaoh in pursuit barrier before them, while on the south a rugged mountain obstructed their further progress. Suddenly they beheld in the distance the flashing armor and moving chariots betokening the advance guard of a great army. As the force drew nearer, the hosts of Egypt were seen in full pursuit. Terror filled the hearts of Israel. Some cried unto the Lord, but by far the greater part hastened to Moses with their complaints: "Because there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou taken us away to die in the wilderness? wherefore hast thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth out of Egypt? Is not this the word that we did tell thee in Egypt, saying, Let us alone, that we may serve the Egyptians? For it had been better for us to serve the Egyptians, than that we should die in the wilderness." Ex. 14:11,12.

Moses was greatly troubled that his people should manifest so little faith in God, notwithstanding they had repeatedly witnessed the manifestation of His power in their behalf. How could they charge upon him the dangers and difficulties of their situation, when he had followed the express command of God? True, there was no possibility of deliverance unless God Himself should interpose for their release; but having been brought into this position in obedience to the divine direction, Moses felt no fear of the consequences. His calm and assuring reply to the people was, "Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of the Lord, which He will show to you today: for the Egyptians whom ye have seen today, ye shall see them again no more forever. The Lord shall fight for you, and ye shall hold your peace." Ex. 14:13,14.

It was not an easy thing to hold the hosts of Israel in waiting before the Lord. Lacking discipline and self-control, they became violent and unreasonable. They expected speedily to fall into the hands of their oppressors, and their wailings and lamentations were loud and deep. The wonderful pillar of cloud had been followed as the signal of God to go forward; but now they questioned among themselves if it might not foreshadow some great calamity; for had it not led them on the wrong side of the mountain, into an impassable way? Thus the angel of God appeared to their deluded minds as the harbinger of disaster.

But now, as the Egyptian host approached them, expecting to make them an easy prey, the cloudy column rose majestically into the heavens, passed over the Israelites, and descended between them and the armies of Egypt. A wall of darkness interposed between the pursued and their pursuers; this darkness was a reminder to them that the 9th plague was no natural event (Ex. 14:20-24; Ps. 105:26-28; Isa. 60:1,2; Zeph. 1:15), for here, so soon afterwards, it occurred again. The Egyptians could no longer discern the camp of the Hebrews, and were forced to halt. But as the darkness of night deepened, the wall of cloud became a great light to the Hebrews, flooding the entire encampment with the radiance of day.

Then hope returned to the hearts of Israel. And Moses lifted up his voice unto the Lord. "And the Lord said unto Moses, Wherefore criest thou unto Me? speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward. But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: and the children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea." Ex. 14:16, 22.

The psalmist, describing the passage of the sea by Israel, sang, "Thy way was in the sea, and Thy paths in the great waters, and Thy footsteps were not known. Thou leddest Thy people like a flock, by the hand of Moses and Aaron." Psalm 77:19, 20, R.V. As Moses stretched out his rod the waters parted, and Israel went into the midst of the sea, upon dry ground, while the waters stood like a wall upon each side. The light from God's pillar of fire shone upon the foam-capped billows, and lighted the road that was cut like a mighty furrow through the waters of the sea, and was lost in the obscurity of the farther shore. (Cmpr. Judith 5:10)

"The Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen. And it came to pass, that in the morning watch the Lord looked unto the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians." (Ex. 14:23,24). The mysterious cloud changed to a pillar of fire before their astonished eyes. The thunders pealed and the lightnings flashed. "The clouds poured out water; the skies sent out a sound: Thine arrows also went abroad. The voice of Thy thunder was in the whirlwind; the lightning lightened the world: the earth trembled and shook." Psalm 77:17, 18, R.V.

The Egyptians were seized with confusion and dismay. Amid the wrath of the elements, in which they heard the voice of an angry God, they endeavored to retrace their steps and flee to the shore they had quitted. But Moses stretched out his rod, and the piled-up waters, hissing, roaring, and eager for their prey, rushed together and swallowed the Egyptian army in their black depths. Thus, Egypt was destroyed economically (Ex. 10:7) and militarily (Ex. 14:6,7,28; 15:5,19; Ps. 136:15).

As morning broke it revealed to the multitudes of Israel all that remained of their mighty foes--the mail-clad bodies cast upon the shore. From the most terrible peril, one night had brought complete deliverance. That vast, helpless throng--bondmen unused to battle, women, children, and cattle, with the sea before them, and the mighty armies of Egypt pressing behind--had seen their path opened through the waters and their enemies overwhelmed in the moment of expected triumph. Jehovah alone had brought them deliverance, and to Him their hearts were turned in gratitude and faith. Their emotion found utterance in songs of praise. The Spirit of God rested upon Moses, and he led the people in a triumphant anthem of thanksgiving, the earliest and one of the most sublime that are known to man.

"I will sing unto Jehovah, for He hath triumphed gloriously; The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea. . . . The place, O Lord, which Thou hast made for Thee to dwell in." Exodus 15:1-16, R.V.

Like the voice of the great deep, rose from the vast hosts of Israel that sublime ascription. It was taken up by the women of Israel, Miriam, the sister of Moses, leading the way, as they went forth with timbrel and dance. Far over desert and sea rang the joyous refrain, and the mountains re-echoed the words of their praise, "Sing ye to Jehovah, for He hath triumphed gloriously." Ex. 15:21.

This song and the great deliverance which it commemorates, made an impression never to be effaced from the memory of the Hebrew people. From age to age it was echoed by the prophets and singers of Israel, testifying that Jehovah is the strength and deliverance of those who trust in Him. That song does not belong to the Jewish people alone. It points forward to the destruction of all the foes of righteousness and the final victory of the Israel of God. The prophet of Patmos beholds the white-robed multitude that have "gotten the victory," standing on the "sea of glass mingled with fire," having "the harps of God. And they sing the song of Moses the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb." Revelation 15:2, 3.

"Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto Thy name give glory, for Thy mercy, and for Thy truth's sake." Psalm 115:1. Such was the spirit that pervaded Israel's song of deliverance, and it is the spirit that should dwell in the hearts of all who love and fear God. (To `fear' God in the Bible means to reverence, love God; not to be afraid of God.) In freeing our souls from the bondage of sin, God has wrought for us a deliverance greater than that of the Hebrews at the Red Sea. Like the Hebrew host, we should praise the Lord with heart and soul and voice for His "wonderful works to the children of men." Ps. 107:8. Those who dwell upon God's great mercies, and are not unmindful of His lesser gifts, will put on the girdle of gladness and make melody in their hearts to the Lord. The daily blessings that we receive from the hand of God, and above all else the death of Jesus to bring happiness and heaven within our reach, should be a theme for constant gratitude. What compassion, what matchless love, has God shown to us, lost sinners, in connecting us with Himself, to be to Him a peculiar treasure! What a sacrifice has been made by our Redeemer, that we may be called children of God! We should praise God for the blessed hope held out before us in the great plan of redemption, we should praise Him for the heavenly inheritance and for His rich promises; praise Him that Jesus lives to intercede for us.

"Whoso offereth praise," says the Creator, "glorifieth Me." Psalm 50:23. All the inhabitants of heaven unite in praising God. Let us learn the song of the angels now, that we may sing it when we join their shining ranks. Let us say with the psalmist, "While I live will I praise the Lord: I will sing praises unto my God while I have any being." "Let the people praise Thee, O God; let all the people praise Thee." Psalm 146:2; 67:5.

God in His providence brought the Hebrews into the mountain fastnesses before the sea, that He might manifest His power in their deliverance and signally humble the pride of their oppressors. He might have saved them in any other way, but He chose this method in order to test their faith and strengthen their trust in Him. The people were weary and terrified, yet if they had held back when Moses bade them advance, God would never have opened the path for them. It was "by faith" that "they passed through the Red Sea as by dry land." Hebrews 11:29. In marching down to the very water, they showed that they believed the word of God as spoken by Moses. They did all that was in their power to do, and then the Mighty One of Israel divided the sea to make a path for their feet.

The great lesson here taught is for all time. Often the Christian life is beset by dangers, and duty seems hard to perform. The imagination pictures impending ruin before and bondage or death behind. Yet the voice of God speaks clearly, "Go forward." We should obey this command, even though our eyes cannot penetrate the darkness, and we feel the cold waves about our feet. The obstacles that hinder our progress will never disappear before a halting, doubting spirit. Those who defer obedience till every shadow of uncertainty disappears and there remains no risk of failure or defeat, will never obey at all. Unbelief whispers, "Let us wait till the obstructions are removed, and we can see our way clearly;" (Ex. 15:1-16; PP 290.2) but faith courageously urges an advance, hoping all things, believing all things.

The cloud that was a wall of darkness to the Egyptians was to the Hebrews a great flood of light, illuminating the whole camp, and shedding brightness upon the path before them. So the dealings of Providence bring to the unbelieving, darkness and despair, while to the trusting soul they are full of light and peace. The path where God leads the way may lie through the desert or the sea, but it is a safe path. {PP 283.2-290.3}

Question: What about the chariot wheels, in particular the eight spoked wheels, doesn't that proof that the Exodus took place during 18th dynasty times and the revised chronology must be in error?

Answer: Of course we know that the 18th Dynasty used such chariots. Historians can trace the use of chariots back into the Hyksos period. Does that mean that the 12th Dynasty could build pyramids but not make wheels? Are we to assume, all they could do was drag goods or use camels, which are also not represented in 12th dynasty art? That sounds nonsensical, doesn't it. Red Sea crossing visualization We believe in this case the absence of direct evidence is not proof they didn't exist before the Hyksos/ Amalekite period. The further back in time one goes, the less perishable goods are found. Once well working models have been designed, they could be used for hundreds of years that way. The 4, 6 and 8 spokes in chariot wheels could have been produced during all this time. Why, should they use 3, 5, or 7 spokes in earlier times? No, such odd spoked wheels would be quite a bit harder to produce.

Another possibility is that, the Gulf of Aqaba at the crossing site was apparently explored to some extent down to 200 feet depth. That is quite close to shore. The deeper region, let's say about half way across, what may be found there? What does the Bible say?

"And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the dry ground: and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left. And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen. And it came to pass, that in the morning watch the Lord looked unto the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians, and took off their chariot wheels (just like later the Philistine god Dagon fell to the ground, 1.Sam. 5) . . . , that they drave them heavily ... And the Lord said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come again ... and the sea returned to his strength when the morning appeared; and the Egyptians fled against it; and the Lord overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea. And the waters returned and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, and all the host of Pharaoh ... there remained not so much as one of them. ... and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore." Exodus 14:22-30

View of the Arabian Mount Sinai (left peak) range. That Israel was able to walk on dry ground across the Red Sea underscores the fact that they walked across on an elevated path which allowed all the water to run off on its sides. If the current depth of the top grade of the land bridge between the Sinai and the Arabian side approximates the depth ca. 3450 years ago, the water was in the middle about ½ km deep. A wall of water on the right and left crashing down upon the Egyptian army must have had the devastating force of a tsunami or worse. As the highlighted text shows, the sheer weight of the water would have destroyed anything in its path and caused a swirling cauldron since the sea crashed down on them from both sides and swept any loose parts away. While any heavy parts sank into the swirling sand, a good number of some lightly clad bodies probably were swept ashore from the initial waves during the return of the water, Ex. 14:30. The scene as described, underscores the obvious, that the force of the water was cataclysmic and no object in its path stood a chance to remain intact. While portions of this land bridge may have looked driveable to the Egyptians, further away from shore must have been rocks and corrals which the Lord used to `take off' the wheels. Finding, what were judged to be 18th dynasty chariot wheels, if that is their true period of manufacture, on this ridge, this writer finds it difficult to see that they are those of the chariots of the pharaoh of the Exodus but must have accumulated there at later times during quieter water conditions, or else the wheels of 1445 looked just like that too.(?).

The Underwater Landbridge
Nuweiba Beach experienced no doubt quite a bit of erosion and Nuweiba Beach shore, area where Israel entered the sea saw in succeeding centuries many Egyptian vessels transporting all kinds of merchandise to where ever there was a market. We know Solomon purchased horses and chariots from Egypt. (1Ki. 10:28) They could reach Ezion Geber quite easily from there. Can we assume that perhaps over centuries a few vessels loaded with wheels sank just offshore? If so, that could also account for 18th dynasty wheels at the site. In another scenario, worn out wheels could have just been thrown in the water too. What we suggest is, that the sampling and more exact dating may, as yet, not be enough to come to a conclusion.

The locations mentioned after the point were the Israelites crossed the parted Gulf of Aqaba are from here on out all located in today's Saudi Arabia. Nuweiba Beach Their next major stop was at Mount Sinai, today's blackened top of `Jebel el Lawz' [50] which exhibits many rock formations and archaeological features which could allow for its identity as Mt. Sinai.

In our modern days, visitors to Nuweiba Beach noticed this ancient pillar attributed to King Solomon with later writing on it in Hebrew, Greek and Syrian in memory of the great miracle of the crossing of the sea. Once the locals realized that people could read the memorial writing, they removed the pillar and today it is no longer present.

The Geological Features at Nuweiba Beach

As this depth chart and the machine drawing shows, the submarine `landbridge' is today about 800 feet, ca. ½ mile deep. (See correlation with Indian landbridge story, [52]). That doesn't mean it was that deep in the days of Moses. View of the measured land bridge Since the distance to the Saudi side is ca. 7 miles, that would make the incline just a little less than 9 degrees over a distance of 3.5 miles, assuming that the deepest part was in the middle between Sinai and Arabia and the angle smooth. However it appears that the deepest point is closer to the Arabian side. If the majority of Pharaoh's army drowned closer to the Arabian side, and depending how wide the `landbridge' was, many remains, in time, would probably have been swept into the very deep channels of Aqaba, especially if tectonic action caused any underwater landslides on the `landbridge'. But such factors depend also on the geological features of the `landbridge' none of which are known to us at this time.
Rock assemblages in the Jebel al Lawz Sinai massif Mount Jebel el Lawz/Sinai Valley view - Notice flat valley space for tents of Israel, unlike the traditional Mt. Sinai

The Hyksos - Amalekites

After the Exodus the Hyksos/Amalekites set themselves up in Egypt as the ruling class after they had overrun the country and started a period of destructions and constructions in a land whose Nuweiba and Horeb/Dschebel al Lawz in Focus army and pharaoh had died in an effort to force the fleeing Israelites back to their slave duties in Egypt. This we surmise from the following scriptures:

"But David pursued, he and four hundred men: for two hundred abode behind, which were so faint that they could not go over the brook Besor.
And they found an Egyptian () in the field, and brought him to David, and gave him bread, and he did eat; and they made him drink water;
And they gave him a piece of a cake of figs, and two clusters of raisins: and when he had eaten, his spirit came again to him: for he had eaten no bread, nor drunk any water, three days and three nights.
And David said unto him, To whom belongest thou? and whence art thou? And he said, I am a young man of Egypt, servant to an Amalekite (); and my master left me, because three days ago I fell sick."
1.Sam. 30:8-13. - We learn here that an Egyptian was a servant to an Amalekite just sometime after King Saul vanquished the Amalekites and the Prophet Samuel killed their king.

In the Egyptian sources themselves the Amalekites are called the "Amu". It was a time of much confusion and lack of records of any kind (except scarabs) in Egypt itself. While we shall not present the evidence in this particular paper since that is presented elsewhere on this website, we just wanted to point out that the evidence from secular sources is meager indeed and probably always will remain so, but our revision of the illustrious 18th Dynasty and its contemporaries throughout the region is a forceful testimony to the fact that modern historians have put up a false historical background to the entire regional history. The biblical account of the Exodus is an absolutely trustworthy account whose memory was being repeated over and over again to the people. It lacks the fanciful, often ludicrous conventions of real legendary stories and makes a mockery of ancient history when it comes to accepting the Hebrew scriptures known to us as the Bible. Once an erroneous chronology has started to assign periods to its artifacts and is being used as a measuring tool for the ancient past, it becomes an institutionalized systematic, erroneous historical account propagating itself despite their best efforts to be accurate. The Pillar of Solomon before its removal

Following the Red Sea crossing, the Israelites had some distance to cover to reach Jebel Al Lawz. The time it took to get there was used by the Amalekites to attack the stragglers and older people in order to harass and rob them, Dt. 25:13. The important clue here is this, the Amalekites did not harass the Israelites until after they had crossed the Red Sea, which is reported in Ex. 14:19-31. Why is that the case? Because before the parting of the sea, these roving people were on a different shore in Arabia.

Many theories and/or scenarios have been forged trying to explain `Elohim', `Yahweh' and the God (or as some have it gods) of Israel. We believe one can look at these views perhaps in 2 ways:

a) the Old Testament books portray a biased account of God which has some aspects of Canaanite origin,
b) the real God was a more complex Godhead arrangement and people misconstrued and worshipped their own biased imaginations - not following the blueprint so to speak God had intended for them. According to this view the purer religion is the one God wanted advanced not that religion which followed sinful paths. But people soon misunderstood. It is a mistake to measure Israel's intended purer faith by pagan, corrupted concepts of God and gods. Red line: Israel's route out of Egypt to the Arabian Sinai; Yellow line: Hyksos-Amalekites coming from region of Mecca (of course before it existed) toward the tip of Aqaba to Egypt; Encounter with Israel at Sinai. Above it all is the Creator God, Yahweh, who is to be worshipped by faith alone not bound to figures of stone, wood or metal. Among all the information: biblical as well as historical, we are to try and discern the true God in His mighty book, the word of God, for He alone is the Almighty Creator God, and we want to learn how he worked for men and women throughout the ages to draw them to Him, the Source of Life. Is it like seeing the roses among all the thorns or is it like, starting with a corrupt mind, only thistles and brambles can be seen? The problem is with our mind, our thinking, our sinfulness. [For a few pages of reading material relevant to our time, truly a brief time before His Second Coming, and how God can save us from this world of sin, click here.]


Red line: Israel's route out of Egypt to the Arabian Sinai (Gal. 4:25). After the demise of the Egyptian army in the Red Sea, Israel could migrate at a slower pace. Leaving the Arabian side of the shore of the Red Sea, Israel arrived at Marah, then came to Elim, the Wilderness of Sin and from there to Rephidim, where they fought against the Amalekites, just before they got to Mt. Sinai. We understand that the valley of the battle between Amalek and Israel was located some 30 miles distance from Jebel el Lawz for Israel moved around this region for a length of time before the event of the proclamation of the Law of God from the mount. (See calendar.) These distances from one location to the other may have been shorter and not in a direct, straight line to Mt. Sinai - after all, this was Moses backyard for 40 years as a shepherd. That is where Moses was retrained so God could use him to lead His people out of Egypt. That is where Moses learned meekness (Num. 12:3) - the willingness to be taught of God.
Yellow line: Hyksos-Amalekites probably fleeing or migrating out of the region of Mecca (of course before it existed) from the after effects of the disasters of the Ten Plagues in Egypt (which probably affected a larger region) and having heard of the conditions in Egypt decided to invade and take over the country. To do so, they had to march toward the tip of Aqaba and from there to Egypt [70].At the top of Mt. Jebel el Lawz God led Israel a shorter route through the Red Sea of Aqaba toward the Arabian Mt. Horeb/Sinai, where they had an encounter with the out of Arabia fleeing Amalekite/Hyksos on their way to around the Gulf of Aqaba to Egypt. It was Josephus who had information which led him to think that the Hyksos were from Arabia: "... the first syllable Hyc, according to the sacred dialect denotes a king, as is Sos, a Shepherd ... and of these is compounded Hycsos: but some say that these people were Arabians." [Josephus, Against Apion, Book I, Sec. 14.]

When Israel moved, it always was in a very orderly fashion. Moses would say, "Rise up, Lord, and let thine enemies be scattered; and let them that hate thee flee before thee" Num. 10:35. Then three tribal armies would follow the cloud and ark. Then the Levites with their wagons (they now had) to transport the various parts of the sanctuary. Three more tribal armies followed. Then came the Kohathites, bearing the sanctuary furnishings. Six tribal armies followed, protecting the rear from attack. When it was time to rest, Moses would call out, "Return, O Lord, unto the many thousands of Israel," Num. 10:36.

While a cloud by day and a pillar of fire at night watched over Israel on their sojourn, they received their supply of water from a rock near their camp. When they left the camp, the water dried up and the rock which followed them flowed with water in their next camp, this is the message we find: "... I want you to remember this: our fathers were all under the cloud and all passed through the sea ... all drank .... from the spiritual rock that was following them. ..." 1.Cor. 10:1-4. But one time, as they pitched their camp, no water flowed anywhere. We read: "As the community had no water, they held a council against Moses and ..." Numbers 20:2. After 40 years (Deut. 1:3) in the desert, with all those who rebelled after the return of the spies having died, Israel was to go up through Ar and the (Dead Sea?) coast of Moab, to the west of the Ammonites up to the River Arnon (Deut. 2:24) toward Jericho. - Israel had arrived at the border of the Promised Land. At the foot of Mt. Jebel el Lawz; A= guard house, B= altar with petroglyphs; C= remains of 12 pillars; D= remains of great altar; e= red/ wells, blue/ wall remains; E &/or F possible camp sites. There was no need for the miraculous water to which they had so matter of fact gotten used to. But they complained.

Therefore, Israel had no lack of water and food when they faithfully followed the guidance of the Lord. Manna, a divine gift, was their daily, high energy food for those 40 years; yet the mixed multitude said, "there is nothing at all, beside this manna, before our eyes." (Num. 11:6; Psalm 49:17) for they lusted what they had before in Egypt not knowing how contaminated that was. Like they did not have to carry goat skins filled with water, they did not have to carry bags of food when traveling. Their time was that at the end of the 12th Dynasty in Egypt. The Amalekites just about settling themselves in the acropolises at the Nile after disengaging themselves from fighting Israel at Jebel al Lawz and walking in a sweeping bow toward the Mediterranean region of the River of Egypt and from there West toward the Nile Delta region.

Something to ponder
This account of Israel leaving the land of their servitude represents a logical sequence which explains satisfactorily how the Arabians/ Hyksos/ Amalekites could A different view, Jebel al Lawz (Mt. Sinai) seems to be the spot from where the picture was taken meet Israel at Mt. Sinai [90]. If Mt. Sinai was the traditional Mt. Sinai of the Egyptian penisula, which is picturesque, but that does not make it the true Mt. Sinai. Why would the Amalekites have gone there and risk a battle with Israel for relatively meager winnings? At the same time this scenario explains how Mecca and Medina became holy places much later of course. We conclude then that Velikovsky was correct in considering the territory of Mecca and Medina to have been a `Kadeshbarnea' where some of the Israelites might have spent some time while the rest of Israel settled further north for 40 years. The journey from Sinai to Kadesh-Barnea was eleven days (Dt. 1:2; Map; ca. 250 km). Actually walking from Jebel al Lawz to Kadesh Barnea was easier than from the traditional Mt. Sinai because from Eilat they could follow the rift valley past today's Petra until they got to the place where they crossed over the mountains into the desert of Zin. Also, we may venture to suggest that Moses leading his people to Kadesh-Barnea may not necessarily mean to downtown Kadesh-Barnea, it could also mean the borders of it.

Since the Amalekites had evacuated Mecca, perhaps on hearing about the state of affairs in Egypt and intending to take over the weakened country, it was probably relatively safe to explore the area. It was Donald Redford who pointed out that the Hyksos, our Amalekites, had no prior cultural roots in Egypt since they destroyed those constructions which probably offended them. [100] We conclude that there was more than one location bearing that name of `Kadeshbarnea'. One solemn thought about Kadeshbarnea may be this, somewhere nearby, probably on nice, flat ground where Israel had their tents, the ground opened up and swallowed the rebellious group which followed Korah, their leader (Numb. 16:1ff); how deep might they have fallen? Could remains be discovered if it was not too deep and an unexpected find was made to let the world know, that our loving Maker and Creator means what He says? .. that He will not at all clear the guilty, Ex. 34:7, but that His wrath is often misunderstood?

In conclusion we would like to remind our readers that from ca. the time after the Exodus to the time of Saul and David, references to contemporary Egypt are not found in scripture. A check in a concordance shows that all references to Egypt in the books of Joshua, Judges and 1.Samuel are geographical references or look back on what the Egyptians did to Israel before or during the Exodus itself. This represents the biblical time span between ca. 1445 to 1023 BC, the latter year being the time when King Saul helped the Egyptians to vanquish the Amalekites.

Conversely, while there is no clue to economical contact with Egypt during this long time span, there are multiple references to Amalek or the Amalekites, of course not situating them to have governed Egypt but coming from that direction (Avaris) and repeatedly attacking locations in Palestine. Starting with Deuteronomy 25:17, where Moses reminds Israel to remember what the Amalekites did to them, there are about seven references in the book of Judges to Amalek or the Amalekites and some seventeen references to the same people in the Book of 1.Samuel. These texts talk about current affairs at the time.

The above may show that Egypt, during this time, was not governed by an economically and industrially thriving succession of Egyptian kings as we also point out Here!

The Physical Evaluation of the Exodus Event

Assuming that 2 million Israelites left Egypt who had to cross the Red Sea within a single day, could such a feat be accomplished at Nuweiba Beach? Looking at the Admirality map shows that the underwater landbridge may have been quite wide, perhaps at least 3 miles of walkable surface. This would allow 5,000 people to walk abreast in 400 rows to cross in the approximate allowable time. Each person had about 1.28 yards square of space to walk in. They would have been a crowd of people 3 miles wide and ca. 0.3 miles to the rear. [If the numbers were different, just change them accordingly. Try including lifestock.]

The next considerations for us to comprehend the Exodus is to look into their daily physical needs. We know that God is capable to work for His people then and today in mighty ways. He had a few faithful people in Israel. People like Moses, Caleb and Joshua. The Exodus account ought to help us to trust in the Lord for our daily needs, even in the time of trouble. If the average Israelite family had 5 children, there would have been about 571,400 men and women in Israel, the rest were unmarried children of various ages. The lesser food and liquid requirements for infants would have been probably offset by the higher requirements for adolescents. We therefore may consider that 1 lb. of food for all people per day in average and 5 gallons of water per day for drinking and washing may be a reasonable assumption. Since we know that each family had enough bread until they got at least to Nuweiba Beach, and that God gave them manna right after that, Ex. 16:15. We also know that water was supplied by God in a miraculous way in cooperation with the faith of Moses and the people, Ex. 17. Assuming that 1 lb. of manna per day was the daily diet for 2 million people, that translates to ca. 893 tons of manna per day, and Fridays twice as much. However, we may assume that manna was very nutritious and the quantities may vary accordingly; not only that, manna, "angels' food" (Ps. 78:25), too, promoted physical, mental and moral strength. [111]

Considering these physical requirements to feed a nation in a dry, inhospitable desert, we can rest assured that the Lord God knows how to take care of the needs of His people even in these last days when things get tough. Please read the scriptures which affirm this,

"O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!" Mt. 23:37.

"Then said the Lord unto Moses, Behold, I will rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a certain rate every day, that I may prove."
"And when the dew that lay was gone up, behold, upon the face of the wilderness there lay a small round thing, as small as the hoar frost on the ground. And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another, It is manna: for they wist not what it was. And Moses said unto them, This is the bread which the Lord hath given you to eat."
"And he said unto them, This is that which the Lord hath said, To morrow is the rest of the holy sabbath unto the Lord: bake that which ye will bake to day, and seethe that ye will seethe; and that which remaineth over lay up for you to be kept until the morning."
Ex. 16:4,14-15, 23.

"And the people thirsted there for water; and the people murmured against Moses, and said, Wherefore is this that thou hast brought us up out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst?"
"Behold, I will stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink. And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel."
Ex. 17:3,6.

"Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ: By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God. And not only so, but we glory in tribulations also: knowing that tribulation worketh patience; And patience, experience; and experience, hope: And hope maketh not ashamed; because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost which is given unto us." Rom. 5:1-5.

We did not mention the quantity of fire wood required each day. Even though manna probably needed no further preparation for consumption, there may have been a need for hot water for various reasons.

Let us calculate the space required to house 2 million people in tents. Assuming there were 285,700 families composed of mother, father and 5 children, they would require a tent for at least 8 people. Such a tent would require at least 15 x 15 feet, 225 square feet of space. Furthermore, let us assume that 3 feet of space between tents was the average, that would allow ca. 293 tents along a 1 mile distance (5280 ft/mi 18 = 293), and 293 x 293 = 85,849 tents/families per square mile which would house 600,943 people (# families x 5). Arrangement of Israelite Camp Thus about 4 square miles should be able to house 2 million in, admittedly, tight quarters even though we allow some extra space. While this is a tightly packed arrangement, remember that as slaves they probably lived in even more congested workers villages in Egypt. How Israel handled latrines, we have no information on, but certain units of tents must have required adequate latrines a distance from the camp. This possibly would vary the number of family tents per square mile somewhat. Despite these arrangements, the health of the people was excellent for we have no indication of rampant diseases due to tight living quarters. The Lord gave them laws of washings, without the people realizing how this would help the overall health of the nation if diligently obeyed.

The actual arrangement of the camp is given quite differently in the Bible because each tribe occupied an allotted area around the tent of the tabernacle. Thus, the 4 square miles represent a rough estimate of what a tightly populated camp would look like, but in reality it was more spacious. The important thing is that God's sanctuary was at the center, for God wanted to dwell among them, Exodus 25:8; Numbers 1:53; Ps. 132: 14,15.

What happened at Sinai? - The Significance of Sinai - The Ten Commandments

God's power was displayed on Sinai in a mighty way, through smoke, fire and the mountain quaking greatly, Ex. 19:18. But hidden within the dark clouds and the smoke were thousands of angels witnessing the giving of the Law of God to Israel. We read, "The Lord ... came with ten thousands of saints: from his right hand went a fiery law for them."[120] "... we also are compassed with a cloud of witnesses . . . Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who . . . is set down at the right hand of the throne of God . . . For you are not come unto the mount that might be touched, and that burned with fire, not unto blackness, and darkness, and tempest. And the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words . . . And so terrible was the sight, that Moses said, I exceedingly fear and quake . . . But you are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God . . . to an innumerable company of angels." Deut. 33:2; Hebr. 12:1,2,18-22. Israel was exceedingly fearful of the great power of God displayed before them, they realized as never before the offensive character of sin, and their own guilt in the sight of a holy God. That shows how God right at the very beginning of Israel's covenant relationship with God, we can discern a revelation of the gospel in the law. That law was never meant to be a means to salvation, it was to show to all the great need of salvation. Therefore, the building of the sanctuary was the very next step. In other words, where God performs an important work with respect to salvation history the angels, which throng the throne of God, certainly would also be present. The Psalmist calls out, "Bless the Lord, ye his angels, that excel in strength, that do his commandments, hearkening unto the voice of his word." Ps. 103:20. If the angels keep God's Law, how much more should we rectify the theological and sectarian errors of centuries and keep His Law as it reads! After all this includes only 10 laws with which this whole world has so much trouble to keep. But such a move would bring God's blessings to His faithful people.

God led His people, whom He calls "the church in the wilderness . . ." (Acts 7:38) out of Egypt. The beginning essence of what happened at Sinai is well put by this verse,

"And the Lord said unto Moses, Come up to me into the mount, and be there: and I will give thee tables of stone, and a law, and commandments which I have written; that thou mayest teach them." Exodus 24:12.

We read here of `tables', `law' and `commandments' - all three are steps God gave to Moses which teach of Him. Moses was commanded of God to come up into the mount, where the Lord would give him a law and commandments written by God on tables of stone. Surely this was not God's original plan to have His law written on stone, but rather into the heart and mind of the people. [See covenant explained] Moses was to take these commandments down from the mountain and teach them to the people. They were to be placed in the holy ark of the tabernacle and to be the center of Israel's worship for His Law represents the Character of God and we should not look upon them merely as codified prohibitions as we explain here.

But what happened really? Moses was up on the mountain for a long time. The Lord gave him some other instructions (explanations of these commands), and he was there 40 days and nights. Then we read,

"And Moses turned, and went down from the mount, and the two tables of the testimony were in his hand: the tables were written The Lord writes the lawon both their sides; on the one side and on the other were they written. And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables. And when Joshua heard the noise of the people as they shouted, he said unto Moses, There is a noise of war in the camp." Exodus 32:15-17.

If you will read the preceding verses and the 9th chapter of Deuteronomy along with this, you will find that while Moses was gone during those 40 days, people had entirely turned around, gone back on their promises, and fallen into idolatry. The Book of Exodus tells us that when God spoke the commandments, the people heard His voice and promised to keep them forever. Then God called Moses up into the mountain to give him a written copy which was to be the standard of all their life, but while he was gone, the people went back on their public promise with a public apostasy.

Moses and Aaron

Aaron was a man of amiable disposition, whom God selected to stand with Moses and speak for him; in short, to be mouthpiece for Moses. God might have chosen Aaron as leader; but He who is acquainted with hearts, who understands character, knew that Aaron was yielding and lacked moral courage to stand in defense of the right under all circumstances, irrespective of consequences. Aaron's desire to have the good will of the people sometimes led him to commit great wrongs. He too frequently yielded to their entreaties, and in so doing dishonored God. The same lack of firmness for the right in his family resulted in the death of two of his sons. Aaron was eminent for piety and usefulness, but he neglected to discipline his family. Rather than perform the task of requiring respect and reverence of his sons, he allowed them to follow their inclinations. He did not discipline them in self-denial, but yielded to their wishes. They were not disciplined to respect and reverence parental authority. The father was the proper ruler of his own family as long as he lived. His authority was not to cease, even after his children were grown up and had families of their own. God Himself was the monarch of the nation, and from the people He claimed obedience and honor.

The order and prosperity of the kingdom depended upon

  1. the good order of the church.
  2. And the prosperity, harmony, and order of the church depended upon the good order and thorough discipline of families, Ex. 20:12; Ex. 21:15ff; Lev. chapters 18-21; .
  3. God punishes the unfaithfulness of parents, to whom He has entrusted the duty of maintaining the principles of parental government, (Judges 9:52-57).
  4. which lie at the foundation of church discipline and the prosperity of the nation.
  5. One undisciplined child has frequently marred the peace and harmony of a church, and incited a nation to murmuring and rebellion (Ez. 2:3).

In a most solemn manner the Lord has enjoined upon children their duty to affectionately respect and honor their parents. And on the other hand He requires parents to train up their children and with unceasing diligence to educate them with regard to the claims of His law and to instruct them in the knowledge and fear of God. These injunctions which God laid upon the Jews with so much solemnity, rest with equal weight upon Christian parents. Those who neglect the light and instruction which God has given in His word in regard to training their children and commanding their households after them, will have a fearful account to settle. Aaron's criminal neglect to command the respect and reverence of his sons resulted in their death.

God distinguished Aaron by choosing him and his male posterity for the priesthood. His sons ministered in the sacred office. Nadab and Abihu failed to reverence the command of God to offer sacred fire upon their censers with the incense before Him. God had forbidden them, upon pain of death, to present the common fire before Him with the incense.

But here is seen the result of loose discipline. As these sons of Aaron had not been educated to respect and reverence the commands of their father, as they disregarded parental authority, they did not realize the necessity of explicitly following the requirements of God. When indulging their appetite for wine and while under its exciting stimulus, their reason was clouded, and they could not discern the difference between the sacred and the common. Contrary to God's express direction, they dishonored Him by offering common instead of sacred fire. God visited them with His wrath; fire went forth from His presence and destroyed them.

Aaron bore his severe affliction with patience and humble submission. Sorrow and keen agony wrung his soul. He was convicted of his neglect of duty. He had not remembered that duty has a twin brother, love; these united can accomplish almost everything. He was priest of the most high God, to make atonement for the sins of the people. He was priest of his household, yet he had been inclined to pass over the folly of his children. He had neglected his duty to train and educate them to obedience, self-denial, and reverence for parental authority. Through feelings of misplaced indulgence, he failed to mold their characters with high reverence for eternal things. Aaron did not see, any more than many Christian parents now see, that his misplaced love and the indulgence of his children in wrong was preparing them for the certain displeasure of God and for His wrath to break forth upon them to their destruction. While Aaron neglected to exercise his authority, the justice of God awakened against them. Aaron had to learn that his gentle remonstrance, without a firm exercise of parental restraint, and his imprudent tenderness toward his sons were cruelty in the extreme. God took the work of justice into His own hands and destroyed the sons of Aaron.

When God called for Moses to come up into the mount, it was six days before he was received into the cloud, into the immediate presence of God. The top of the mountain was all aglow with the glory of God. And yet even while the children of Israel had this glory in their very sight, unbelief was so natural to them that they began to murmur with discontent because Moses was absent. While the glory of God signified His sacred presence upon the mountain, and their leader was in close converse with God, they should have been sanctifying themselves by close searching of heart, humiliation, and godly fear. God had left Aaron and Hur to take the place of Moses. In his absence the people were to consult and advise with these men of God's appointment.

Here Aaron's deficiency as a leader or governor of Israel is seen. The people beset him to make them gods to go before them into Egypt. Here was an opportunity for Aaron to show his faith and unwavering confidence in God, and with firmness and decision to meet the proposition of the people. But his natural desire to please and to yield to the people led him to sacrifice the honor of God. He requested them to bring their ornaments to him, and he wrought out for them a golden calf and proclaimed before the people: "These be thy gods, O Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt." And to this senseless god he made an altar and proclaimed on the morrow a feast to the Lord. All restraint seemed to be removed from the people. They offered burnt offerings to the golden calf, and a spirit of levity took possession of them. They indulged in shameful rioting and drunkenness; they ate, they drank, and rose up to play.

A few weeks only had passed since they had made a solemn covenant with God to obey His voice. They had listened to the words of God's law, spoken in awful grandeur from Sinai's mount, amid thunderings and lightnings and earthquakes. They had heard the declaration from the lips of God Himself: "I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me; and showing mercy unto thousands of them that love Me, and keep My commandments." Ex. 20:1-6.

Aaron and also his sons had been exalted by being called into the mount to there witness the glory of God. "And they saw the God of Israel: and there was under His feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the body of heaven in His clearness." Ex. 24:10.

God had appointed Nadab and Abihu to a most sacred work, therefore He honored them in a most wonderful manner. He gave them a view of His excellent glory, that the scenes they should witness in the mount would abide with them and the better qualify them to minister in His service and render to Him that exalted honor and reverence before the people which would give them clearer conceptions of His character and awaken in them due obedience and reverence for all His requirements.

Before Moses left his people for the mount, he read to them the words of the covenant that God had made with them, and they with one voice answered: "All that the Lord hath said will we do, and be obedient." Ex. 24:7. How great must have been the sin of Aaron, how aggravated in the sight of God!

While Moses was receiving the law of God in the mount, the Lord informed him of the sin of rebellious Israel and requested him to let them go, that He might destroy them. But Moses pleaded before God for the people. Although Moses was the meekest man that lived, yet when the interests of the people over whom God had appointed him as leader were at stake, he lost his natural timidity and with singular persistency and wonderful boldness pleaded with God for Israel. He would not consent that God should destroy His people, although God promised that in their destruction He would exalt Moses and raise up a better people than Israel.

Moses prevailed. God granted his earnest petition not to blot out His people. Moses took the tables of the covenant, the law of Ten Commandments, and descended from the mount. The boisterous, drunken revelry of the children of Israel reached his ears long before he came to the camp. When he saw their idolatry, and that they had broken in a most marked manner the words of the covenant, he became overwhelmed with grief and indignation at their base idolatry. Confusion and shame on their account took possession of him, and he there threw down the tables and broke them. As they had broken their covenant with God, Moses, in breaking the tables, signified to them that so also God had broken His covenant with them. The tables whereupon was written the law of God were broken.

Aaron, with his amiable disposition, so very mild and pleasing, sought to conciliate Moses, as though no very great sin had been committed by the people, over which he should feel thus deeply. Moses asked in anger: "What did this people unto thee, that thou hast brought so great a sin upon them? And Aaron said, Let not the anger of my lord wax hot: thou knowest the people, that they are set on mischief. For they said unto me, Make us gods, which shall go before us: for as for this Moses, the man that brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we wot not what is become of him. And I said unto them, Whosoever hath any gold, let them break it off. So they gave it me: then I cast it into the fire, and there came out this calf." Ex. 32:24 Aaron would have Moses think that some wonderful miracle had transformed their golden ornaments into the shape of a calf. He did not relate to Moses that he, with other workmen, had wrought out this image.

When Aaron took the first step in the wrong direction, the spirit which had actuated the people imbued him, and he took the lead and directed as a general, and the people were singularly obedient. Here Aaron gave decided sanction to the most aggravated sins, because it was less difficult than to stand in vindication of the right. And Aaron, the younger brother of Moses, as well as Miriam [145] (a sister of Moses), made a big collection of jewelry, not for foreign mission - he did not collect it to be used in the service of the true God who stood up on the mount right before them - but the women brought in their earrings and metal looking glasses (mirrors), and they were melted down and made into an image of the Egyptian sacred bull, an Apis like bull, called here a calf. Split rock on the top of a lower hill near Mt. Horeb. It could have been Moses water rock. And they began to worship that heathen idol which they had known in Egypt, and they danced around it with the lascivious dances of pagan worship. While Moses was coming down from the mount with the holy law of God in his hands, the people were breaking the very first commandment of the law which they had heard God speak to them just over a month before - "Thou shalt have no other gods before Me." They were breaking the second commandment also - "Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image." (Ex. 20:3,4) They broke all these commandments right there. They were bowing down to an idol and breaking them all. It was a nation publicly defying God with those flagrant sins. They had to learn that, when we sin against a neighbor, we sin against God since we are God's by creation and redemption, Numb. 5:6; 1.Cor. 6:19,20, Acts 17:28. Sin separates a person from the sense of God's presence. It is hard to have a prayer life when sinning even sins we might consider to be small. When an Israelite wronged someone they were to confess and make restitution, Numb. 5:6-8. That is how we should treat each other.

What happened? Let us go back to Exodus 32. When Moses and Joshua came down from the mount, Close up view of the other side then image aboveJoshua heard what sounded to him like the noise of war in the camp. But to Moses it sounded not like the noise of some who had achieved (mastered) something, or of crying for being overcome. It sounded to him like singing. . . . The people were singing pagan songs while worshipping the golden calf.

From all that gold they had managed to make a small golden calf. And Moses took it, burned it in the fire and ground it to powder, and spread it over some water and made the people of Israel drink the water, Ex. 32:19,20.

What did he do? How can you grind up gold into powder? The old gold miners out here in California could do that too. They made gold dust. Gold always goes to the bottom in water. But there is a way to make an emulsion of gold and water. You burn the gold just right until it is melted. Then you agitate it violently, grind it into fine powder and mix it with water; and many times it will make an emulsion. Someone in the United States did that one time, and the emulsion looked exactly like blood. Possibly that is what they drank.[150]

Moses had the tables of stone with the words of God written on them, the divine law. But what really caused the breaking of the Law of God on this day?

Moses and Joshua saw them dancing around the golden calf. Lets read something,

"And the Lord said unto me, Arise, get thee down quickly from hence; for thy people which thou hast brought forth out of Egypt have corrupted themselves; they are quickly turned aside out of the way which I commanded them; they have made them a molten image." Deuteronomy 9:12.

And the Lord said to Moses, "Let Me smite them, let Me blot out their name." Deuteronomy 9:14. But Moses (`palal') prayed for them. He pleaded, "Lord, remember Thy name among the nations." (Ps. 22:27; Ez. 6:9; Neh. 1:8,9) And the mount burned with fire (God was still present) (Dt. 9:15), displaying the wrath of God. Moses then, in shameful anger for his people, cast the broken law and break the tablets on the rocks below. He tells Israel then of his fasting for a long time before God for their sins. Is he refusing to believe the evidence? He was remorseful, thinking may be he didn't pastor them right. But the anger of the Lord was then turned away from Israel because Moses had interceded for God's chosen people, like Jesus does. So Moses was a picture of what Jesus would do when He came. He was also a model for King Jehoshaphat, when he was in distress from nations.

So what was it then that really broke the law? Was it Moses throwing them publicly onto the rocks?

What really broke the Tables of the Law of God were the sins of the people. Had Israel not sinned, this would not have happened.

But the Law of God was only written on tables of stone. The people had not written God's law into their hearts. They had not yet learned to really love the Lord - even though he led them out from slavery - hard labour. They were still children in comprehension what it means to be redeemed from affliction and sin. They suffered for their mistake because they were not ignorant of the real presence of God, an event none of us has ever seen. It was a gospel to them, or should have been. They could have spent the 40 days memorizing God's law and thus writing it into their hearts. The men to their wives and the wives to their children. The Decalogue was to be the basis of the eternal covenant, Hebr. 8:10. Instead they thought back on Egypt. They could have sought and prayed, `God, show us more of Thy grace and goodness.' They had no wants. Not really. Did they really want to live in those crowded workers villages of Egypt again? Was that better than in a tent? Hey, all campers. You rather live in a dark mud house or in a tent?

The way God sees things: When Moses saw the idolatry of Israel and his indignation was so aroused at their shameful forgetfulness of God that he threw down the tables of stone and broke them, Aaron stood meekly by, bearing the censure of Moses with commendable patience. The people were charmed with Aaron's lovely spirit and were disgusted with the rashness of Moses. But God seeth not as man sees. He condemned not the ardor and indignation of Moses against the base apostasy of Israel.

The true general then takes his position for God. He has come direct from the presence of the Lord, where he pleaded with Him to turn away His wrath from His erring people. Now he has another work to do, as God's minister, to vindicate His honor before the people, and let them see that sin is sin, and righteousness is righteousness. He has a work to do to counteract the terrible influence of Aaron. "Then Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and said, Who is on the Lord's side? let him come unto me. And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together unto him. And he said unto them, Thus saith the Lord God of Israel, Put every man his sword by his side, and go in and out from gate to gate throughout the camp, and slay every man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his neighbor. And the children of Levi did according to the word of Moses: and there fell of the people that day about three thousand men. For Moses had said, Consecrate yourselves today to the Lord, even every man upon his son, and upon his brother, that He may bestow upon you a blessing this day." Ex. 32:26-29.

Here Moses defines genuine consecration as obedience to God, to stand in vindication of the right and to show a readiness to carry out the purpose of God in the most unpleasant duties, showing that the claims of God are higher than the claims of friends or the lives of the nearest relatives. The sons of Levi consecrated themselves to God to execute His justice against crime and sin.

Aaron and Moses both sinned in not giving glory and honor to God at the waters of Meribah. They were both wearied and provoked with the continual complaining of Israel, and, at a time when God was to mercifully display His glory to the people, to soften and subdue their hearts and lead them to repentance, Moses and Aaron claimed the power of opening the rock for them. "Hear now, ye rebels; must we fetch you water out of this rock?" Numb. 20:10. Here was a golden opportunity to sanctify the Lord in the midst of them, to show them the long-suffering of God and His tender pity for them. They had murmured against Moses and Aaron because they could not find water. Moses and Aaron took these murmurings as a great trial and dishonor to themselves, forgetting that it was God whom the people were grieving. It was God whom they were sinning against and dishonoring, not those who were appointed of God to carry out His purpose. They were insulting their best Friend in charging their calamities upon Moses and Aaron; they were murmuring at God's providence.

This sin of these noble leaders was great. Their lives might have been illustrious to the close. They had been greatly exalted and honored; yet God does not excuse sin in those of exalted positions any sooner than He does in those in more humble positions. Many professed Christians look upon men who do not reprove and condemn wrong, as men of piety and Christians indeed, while they think that those who stand boldly in defense of the right, and will not yield their integrity to unconsecrated influences, lack piety and a Christian spirit.

Those who stand in defense of the honor of God and maintain the purity of truth at any cost will have manifold trials, as did our Saviour in the wilderness of temptation. While those who have yielding temperaments, who have not courage to condemn wrong, but keep silent when their influence is needed to stand in defense of the right against any pressure, may avoid many heartaches and escape many perplexities, they will also lose a very rich reward, if not their own souls. Those who are in harmony with God, and who through faith in Him receive strength to resist wrong and stand in defense of the right, will always have severe conflicts and will frequently have to stand almost alone. But precious victories will be theirs while they make God their dependence. His grace will be their strength. Their moral sensibility will be keen and clear, and their moral powers will be able to withstand wrong influences. Their integrity, like that of Moses, will be of the purest character.

The mild and yielding spirit of Aaron, and his desire to please the people, blinded his eyes to their sins and to the enormity of the crime that he was sanctioning. His course in giving influence to wrong and sin in Israel cost the lives of three thousand men. In what contrast with this is the course of Moses. After he had evidenced to the people that they could not trifle with God with impunity; after he had shown them the just displeasure of God because of their sins, by giving the terrible decree to slay friends or relatives who persisted in their apostasy; after the work of justice to turn away the wrath of God, irrespective of their feelings of sympathy for loved friends and relatives who continued obstinate in their rebellion--after this, Moses was prepared for another work. He proved who was the true friend of God and the friend of the people.

"And it came to pass on the morrow, that Moses said unto the people, Ye have sinned a great sin: and now I will go up unto the Lord; peradventure I shall make an atonement for your sin. And Moses returned unto the Lord, and said, Oh, this people have sinned a great sin, and have made them gods of gold. Yet now, if Thou wilt forgive their sin--; and if not, blot me, I pray Thee, out of Thy book which Thou has written. And the Lord said unto Moses, Whosoever hath sinned against Me, him will I blot out of My book. Therefore now go, lead the people unto the place of which I have spoken unto thee: behold, Mine Angel shall go before thee: nevertheless in the day when I visit I will visit their sin upon them. And the Lord plagued the people, because they made the calf, which Aaron made." Ex. 32:30-35.

Moses supplicated God in behalf of sinning Israel. He did not try to lessen their sin before God; he did not excuse them in their sin. He frankly acknowledged that they had sinned a great sin and had made them gods of gold. Then he loses his timidity, and the interest of Israel is so closely interwoven with his life that he comes with boldness to God and prays for Him to forgive His people. If their sin, he pleads, is so great that God cannot forgive them, if their names must be blotted from His book, he prays the Lord to blot out his name also. When the Lord renewed His promise to Moses, that His Angel should go before him in leading the people to the Promised Land, Moses knew that his request was granted. But the Lord assured Moses that if He was provoked to visit the people for their transgressions, He would surely punish them for this grievous sin also. But if they were henceforth obedient, He would blot this great sin out of His book. [155]

Yes, sin was right at the door step of their hearts. - I once read of a lady who was worried about her spiritual condition; she couldn't understand how God could forgive her sins. An old pastor told her to read Isaiah 53. He told her, when she came to the 5th verse to substitute the first person singular pronoun for the plural form, and then, when she got through reading the chapter, to see if she could understand then how God could forgive her sins. "But He was wounded for my transgressions, He was bruised for my iniquities: the chastisement of my peace was upon Him ..." Then she stopped, and a wonderful light came into her eyes as she read, "... and with His stripes I am healed." Isa. 53:5.

That is it! When Jesus died of a broken heart, it was the sins of the world, mine and yours, that killed Him. Is that not true? Does the Bible not say that in 1.John 2:2 that Jesus died for the sins of the whole world? Yes, it does.

Our sins, those of each one of us, broke the heart of God.

And Jesus died that death from which there is no resurrection so that we don't have to die that death.

After Moses broke the tables of the law on which God Himself had written His law, Moses picked up the broken pieces, measured them and made new tables and God's finger wrote on them once more His eternal law, Deuteronomy 10:1-5.

Each one of us needs to come to the Rock, Jesus, to have our hearts broken at His feet and see what great salvation He gives us. Redemption from certain death. The death that hangs over all who choose not to want to be part of God's kingdom. But God says, `Why do you want to die?'

There is no reason for choosing that option. There is nothing this world can give that transcends what God has in store for those who really love Him.

The Spiritual Angle

The way God led Israel out of Egypt is a picture lesson how He will go through the earth to free His people in the end out of this world of sin. With fire and tempest, earthquake and death, our Mighty God led His people out of Egypt, for we read about `fire and tempest' (Ex. 9:23) in the 7th plague, and about the mountain quaking greatly, Ex. 19:18. God provided Israel water "out of the rock of flint" (Dt. 8:15), and fed them with "the corn of heaven", (Ps. 78:24). While the world regards these accounts as nothing, God's people know they contain promises for the future, when they are forsaken by the world.

Whenever God gave Israel a new hope or understanding, He also tested them so they would know the limits of their own heart and turn to God for their strength in everything, for everything Israel received, it was God who gave it to them. We read,

"And (Thou God) madest known unto them thy holy sabbath, and commandedst them precepts, statutes, and laws, by the hand of Moses thy servant: And (Thou God) gavest them bread from heaven for their hunger, and broughtest forth water for them out of the rock for their thirst, and promisedst them that they should go in to possess the land which thou hadst sworn to give them." Neh. 9:14,15.

About 15 months after leaving Egypt Israel was nearing the borders of the Promised Land. Twelve spies were sent out to view the land and report their findings. Although all twelve of them saw the same sights, ten gave a negative report as if they had totally forgotten how the Lord had lead them this far. Many times that takes place among us today too. What we experience, feel and see can be very different for each one and consequently will have very different consequences on how we live our life subsequently. Our interpretations of "facts" form the foundation of our life. If we mix them with emotion instead of a "thus saith the Lord," our beliefs will not safe us. Facing the "facts" without God's Word dwelling in us will lead to interpretations that point away from God and toward faithlessness. Facing the facts with God will lead to evidence that will help us to trust God and strengthen our faith in Him.[160]

These promises, and such a helping hand, is still available for us today. He split the rock and water came forth in a wide, river like stream, Ps. 78:14-25. - We should know that God is not playing cat and mouse with us. He would never do that. Satan draws such pictures of God in our sin debased minds, God wants us to dwell on Him.

"Satan is exultant when he can lead the children of God into unbelief and despondency. He delights to see us mistrusting God, doubting His willingness and power to save us. He loves to have us feel that the Lord will do us harm by His providences. It is the work of Satan to represent the Lord as lacking in compassion and pity. He misstates the truth in regard to Him. He fills the imagination with false ideas concerning God; and instead of dwelling upon the truth in regard to our heavenly Father, we too often fix our minds upon the misrepresentations of Satan and dishonor God by distrusting Him and murmuring against Him. Satan ever seeks to make the religious life one of gloom. He desires it to appear toilsome and difficult; and when the Christian presents in his own life this view of religion, he is, through his unbelief, seconding the falsehood of Satan." {SC, 116.2}

For 40 years Israel had manna and water, the cloud by day and the pillar of fire by night, their shoes and clothes did not wear out (Deut. 29: 5,6; Neh. 9:21), they did not get sick and never lacked anything life requires - yet they murmured and fostered unbelief nevertheless. The fear of death in the desert seemed to close their minds to all the wonderful leading. When fear of death becomes our principal motive, we can see nothing else that can save us; we retreat in isolation. The same problems Israel had in the desert, Judah had in the days of Christ, and we have them today. But unlike the problems, the solutions are so much more noble and elevating for they are made possible by what Jesus Christ did for the human race. The situation is described this way,

"In the carrying forward of his work in the earth, and the manifestation of his power, God does not consult the will or imperfect judgment of men. His plans and methods may be directly opposite to those approved by human wisdom. If men would criticize and condemn the Saviour's work, when they had such evidence of divine power as the miracle at Bethesda (Jh. 5), can we wonder that they criticize and condemn those through whom he works today? Unbelief will always find an excuse for its existence. God designs that men shall believe, not because there is no possibility of doubt, but because there is abundant evidence for faith. Christ bade the Pharisees, "Search the Scriptures, for in them ye think ye have eternal life, and they are they which testify of me." John 5:39. The Jewish teachers professed to be expounders of God's word; but had they prayerfully studied and rightly understood its teachings, they would not have substituted their own traditions for the law of Jehovah." {ST, June 8, 1882 par. 12}

The nation of Israel saw their conflicts repeatedly as if they were with Moses. But Moses was their leader chosen by God, therefore, ultimately their conflicts were not with Moses but with God. That is why we ought to remember the words where it says,

"And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment: Of sin, because they believe not on me." Jh. 16:8,9.

Unbelief causes the transgression of the law. "From the beginning of sin Christ was with his people to dispute the authority of Satan; for he saw that the conflict must be carried on here in the earth. Satan withstood the Son of God in every effort to redeem his people. Enshrouded in the pillar of cloud by day and in the pillar of fire by night, Christ directed, guided, counseled the children of Israel in their journeyings from Egypt to Canaan. But how unwilling were the children of Israel to be led, how unwilling to be controlled by the voice of the Angel of the Lord! How eager they were in vindicating their own course, in justifying themselves in their rebellious feelings, and to follow their own ideas and plans!" {ST, April 25, 1895 par. 1}

That is why the great controversy between Christ and Satan still rages in hour hearts when we ask, "Is the Lord among us or not?" Ex. 17:7. In the end, sin brings death, but when sin is conquered, death loses its power.

The Theology of Moses

Moses wrote, "Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, bruise for bruise." Ex. 21:24,25.

But Jesus said, "Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth: But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also." Matth. 5:38,39.

Does this mean that the OT encourages standards of behavior not as elevated as those of the NT? Shouldn't we know that the OT is just as sublime a revelation of God as is the NT and the two complement each other? If so, how should we explain it?

As it often happens with popular Biblical passages, the expression "eye for eye, tooth for tooth" is frequently quoted by people who have never read or studied the statement as it appears in the Bible itself. Accordingly, they tend to ascribe a meaning to it that may not have been intended by its author. It is generally used to justify retaliation in kind for physical injuries and other types of social violence.

We find this expression three times in the writings of Moses, Ex. 21:22-25; Lev. 24:19,20; Dt. 19:18-21. Please look them up.

On the other hand, in the gospel of Matthew he records the way Jesus interpreted the phrase for His contemporaries during a sermon in Galilee, saying,

"Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth:
But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also.
And if any man will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him have [thy] cloak also.
And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain." Mt. 5:38-41.

On the surface it seems that Jesus contradicts what Moses wrote since He opposes any sort of retaliation. But notice, before He offered His interpretation of this and other teachings from the books of Moses, Christ was careful to assert that the interpretation He would give did not in any way change what the original statements were intended to teach. How did Jesus do this? He said,

"Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill.
For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled." Mt. 5:17,18.

So we must study this more carefully. Two arguments have been suggested to explain these scriptures.

A) These three passages from Moses referenced above represent only one aspect of a number of inducements to repentant behavior found throughout his writings and the rest of the Bible.
B) The peculiar phrasing is a figure of speech favored by Moses, and is meant to emphasize equality in the administration of justice, rather than judicial retaliation in kind.

In a variety of statements the inspired writers of the Bible indicate that their goal in writing is to lead sinners to reconciliation with their Creator.

Here are typical examples.

  1. To foster the knowledge of God and generate love for Him, Dt. 6:4-6.
  2. To provide a means by which God can re-create holiness in sinners, John 17:17.
  3. To generate increasing faith in God, Rom. 10:13-17.
  4. To sustain the holy lifestyle of those who choose to repent, Ps. 119:9-11; 2.Tim. 3:16,17.

To accomplish the above goals and reach the varied temperaments of people, the biblical authors were inspired to use a range of methods. Their literature includes threats of the dire consequences of continued inappropriate attitudes and actions, as well as appeals that set out the temporary and eternal rewards for living the principle of love. This pattern is found throughout the Bible and was used by Christ Himself.

Notice the following:

  1. Inducements to love and faith, Lk. 10:25-28; Mt. 5:3-10.
  2. Promises of reward for accepting repentance and conversion, John 3:16; Lk. 2:32-34.
  3. Threats against intransigent unrepentant living, Mt. 13:41-43; Mk. 6:11; Lk. 12:47.

Jesus included a threat of consequences when He appealed to the man whose paralysis He had healed at Bethesda to discontinue his sinning, John 5:14. However, when He rescued a woman from the clutches of her own sinfulness and the self-righteous cruelty of her accusers, there was no threat of consequences as He encouraged her to stop her life of sin, John 8:10,11. Christ was obviously impressed that the two cases were different and called for different approaches.

The passages in which the "eye for eye" phrase occurs use the threat of judicial action on the part of the community as a deterrent to violence for those who would respond positively to such inducement. Those who may want to be violent are warned that the community will punish them with severity appropriate to their action. It should be noted also that the response is judicial (involving the whole community). It was not personal retaliation.

But in the attempt to eradicate violence from the society, the writings of Moses contain just as many passages that would be appealing to other personality types. In Exodus 23:1-8, for example, the people are admonished (among other things) . . .

  1. "not follow a crowd to do evil", Ex. 23:2;
  2. to rescue straying animals of one's neighbor;
  3. not to pervert justice for the poor;
  4. in Numbers 5:5-8 they are encouraged to seek reconciliation through admission of faults and interpersonal forgiveness, rather than appealing to judicial arbitration;
  5. in Exodus 23:1-9, they are encouraged to respond to the hostility of others with kindness.

A careful review of Jesus' words reveals that He used a comprehensive knowledge of the writings of Moses to establish that Moses did not teach that vengeful retaliation was acceptable to God.

We notice therefore that the division of the Bible into chapters and verses, as helpful as it is many times - and we could hardly function without it today it seems, when it comes to Bible knowledge, our and others knowledge is largely based on individual verses and short passages, not or rarely on thorough contextual knowledge of the whole book or books. In olden times people knew more of the whole book.

Mercy Abundant Everywhere

Abundant mercy is promised to the repentant throughout the Bible. The Lord's mercy toward humans and that of His children to one another is the theme of numerous biblical accounts. God revealed Himself to Moses as one who abounds in mercy to the penitent, Ex. 34:6-8.

Mercy is at the zenith of the system of confession and sacrifices by which the Israelites were taught to worship. The tablets with the Ten Commandments that God Himself wrote on stone were covered in an ark and placed under the mercy seat in the tabernacle sanctuary, thus symbolizing their muted jurisdiction over the penitent.

At times these commandments are displayed and promoted in contemporary society in a manner that suggests that some do not appreciate the fact that no human but Christ can stand their divine scrutiny - apart from God's mercy. Moses was teaching that those who ignored repentance and reconciliation at the personal level exposed themselves to the same unmitigated response of the law on earth as in heaven. Personal reconciliation was recommended over judicial arbitration.

Said Jesus,

"Agree with thine adversary quickly, whiles thou art in the way with him; lest at any time the adversary deliver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison.
Verily I say unto thee, Thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou hast paid the uttermost farthing." Matth. 5:25,26.

One More Look at Moses' Three Statements

When the three statements from Moses are carefully studied, the "eye for eye" statement (and similar references) may be seen as forceful figures of speech used by him to express the idea of equality in the administration of justice. The punishment must fit the crime. There must be equal protection and exposure for everyone under the law, regardless of status.

The reference in Exodus comes in a situation where fighting causes contact with a pregnant woman that results in a premature birth or a miscarriage. Clearly the emphasis is on appropriate restitution. "Tooth for tooth" and "burn for burn" are quite unlikely under those circumstances.

In Leviticus the issue is whether the punishment for blasphemy within the community is applicable to one who is not fully Israelite. The matter was taken to the highest level of appeal and the Lord directed Moses to include the concept of appropriate punishment for all who dwelt in the community.

Everyone was to be protected by, and exposed to, the jurisdiction of the law. "You shall have the same law for the stranger and for one from your own country; for I am the Lord your God." Lev. 24:22.

The wording used in Deuteronomy comes in the context of the attempt to hurt someone by false criminal accusations. It states that the punishment should be whatever was intended for the one falsely accused. Again, the emphasis is on matching the punishment to the crime.

One more item. Even though the Bible should not be expected to record all the deeds of the community during the long period of history it covers, the fact that it contains no examples of justice applied by gouging out eyes, knocking out teeth, and hacking off limbs constitutes strong evidence that the words of Moses were understood as figurative, rather than literal.

Christ asserted that the "eye for eye" statements should not be construed as meaning that retaliation and revenge are acceptable. And in so doing, He was in perfect harmony with the teachings of Moses and the prophets. [200]

The psalmist, describing the passage of the sea by Israel, sang, "Thy way was in the sea, and Thy paths in the great waters, and Thy footsteps were not known. Thou leddest Thy people like a flock, by the hand of Moses and Aaron." Psalm 77:19, 20, R.V. As Moses stretched out his rod the waters parted, and Israel went into the midst of the sea, upon dry ground, while the waters stood like a wall upon each side. The light from God's pillar of fire shone upon the foam-capped billows, and lighted the road that was cut like a mighty furrow through the waters of the sea, and was lost in the obscurity of the farther shore.

"The Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the sea, even all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen. And it came to pass, that in the morning watch the Lord looked unto the host of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of the cloud, and troubled the host of the Egyptians." (Ex. 14:23,24). The mysterious cloud changed to a pillar of fire before their astonished eyes. The thunders pealed and the lightnings flashed. "The clouds poured out water; the skies sent out a sound: Thine arrows also went abroad. The voice of Thy thunder was in the whirlwind; the lightning lightened the world: the earth trembled and shook." Psalm 77:17,18.

Biblical, Sequential, Geographical Summary of the Exodus

Theologians and Teachers of History, because of their unbelief, viewed these scriptural stories as mythology and exaggerations. Only simple men and women because of the trust in the Christian message as presented in the Bible, faithfully believed also those parts they could not explain or understand. Now, however, the sequences of events and the geographical considerations give us reasons to happily rejoice as the Israelites did then at times, and accept the report in Exodus as true. Before the world realized that at Nuweiba there was an underwater land bridge, to maintain simple faith in the Exodus account was indeed not easy to defend, but now we can breath a sigh of relief, and yet nevertheless be happy that we kept faith anyway, Ps. 73:23.

Step by Step
The items we want to remember are the following:

Point by Point Markers of the Exodus

The items we want to remember are the following:

  1. The Bible indicates that knowing the history of God's people is important, "And Moses told his father in law all that the Lord had done unto Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel's sake, and all the travail that had come upon them by the way, and how the Lord delivered them." Exodus 18:8; Deut. 11:4; Joshua 2:10.
  2. Exodus 3:12 states that after Moses would bring Israel out of Egypt, they would serve God at the mountain where Moses had the burning bush experience.
  3. That mountain is referred to by the Apostle Paul in Galatians 4:25 as Mt. Sinai in Arabia.
  4. Exodus 4:19 - All the Egyptian men who sought Moses for slaying an Egyptian slave guard had died.
  5. Exodus 12:40 - The 430 year sojourn in Egypt was up in 1445 BC; it started in 1875 BC when Abraham was 75 years old.
  6. Exodus 12:39; 13:6-8; - the unleavened bread would last them seven days.
  7. Exodus 13:17 - God commanded Moses not to go towards the north where the Philistines lived but south a ways and then through the wilderness on their way out of the Pi-Ramesse/Succoth (Town Offline, see map) (Ex. 12:37) area and Egypt.
  8. During the time of Israel in Egypt, the name Ramesse or Ramses appears to have been more of a family name, not a particular king but there were found six rulers by that name in the so-called Sothis King List among the 13th Dynasty rulers (see *), which easily accounts for that name in the Book of Exodus. Since their `Exodus' started from about Pi-Ramesse, or a place by that name even closer to Succoth (Local map) (for there are numerous ruins around Succoth), the crossing of the Sea was seven days removed from that, the time it took to cross the desert wilderness, walking day and night without stopping, Nehemiah 9:19.
  9. This item brought up now is an important detail: Moses, not knowing that God would perform a miracle, when he approached the Gulf of Aqaba area, he must have thought to walk around the Red Sea to arrive at Mt. Horeb in Arabia (x-ed out), and so he led Israel toward the north to walk around the Aqaba Gulf, God told him, `No,' "Turn," Ex. 14:2; Numbers 14:25. In other words, continue going east toward the coast of the Gulf where the beachhead of Nuweiba ist still today.
  10. As Israel walked under the cloud of the Lord, it seems more and more possible that the people, and perhaps even Moses, began to think of the cloud as caused by normal weather events, and instead of praying to ask God if he should turn north to guide Israel around the Red Sea to the Arabian side, we wonder if he just did it on his own volition.
  11. Nevertheless it seems Moses' change in course, if it happened that way, probably for a short distance, perhaps was within God's providence so that (much) later generations could discover these intricate details of the Exodus, so they can see the truth in it and will have no excuse to deny it.
  12. Josephus describes the geographical appearance of the area where God's miracle took place, this way, "Now when the Egyptians had overtaken the Hebrews, they prepared to fight them, and by their multitude they drove them into a narrow place ... They also seized on the passages by which they imagined the Hebrews might fly, shutting them up between inaccessible precipices and the sea; for there was on each side a ridge of mountains that terminated at the sea, which were impassable by reason of their roughness, and obstructed their flight." [Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Bk. II, ch. XV, Sec. 3] - This may help us realize that the terrain we look for on a map ought to reflect these conditions. After all, Josephus lived around 100 AD, and apparently knew this detail from sources which have not been related to us in those words in the Bible.
  13. Pharaoh's `bewildered' statement must mean that Israel saw itself surrounded by mountains and cliffs and the sea. That is why Israel became very afraid and they began to complain at that point, Ex. 14:10-14.
  14. Another significant factor is this, that Israel was told to prepare unleavened bread before the `Exodus walk away' from Egypt, which would sustain them until some other event (manna). The Bible states that unleavened bread would be edible for a limited time, Exodus 12:15, 39 and 13:6-9. - This means that the bread Israel had would last them for those seven days of walking. Any geographical point which is further or too close from the point of their departure, would not fulfill this parameter.
  15. The approximate distance from Succoth to Nuweiba is 285 miles, that means in 6-7 days they would have to cover 42 miles each day, or 1.7 miles per hour. Since they walked day and night, without stopping, and since we can assume they were a strong and healthy people, that appears do-able.
  16. The place where they would be after 7 days would have to be by some water, big enough to drown the Egyptians in the days of Moses. Looking at a map and the satellite images, Nuweiba Beach is the only place where those criteria of 1) distance and 2) the mountains enclosing them, are present.
  17. Divinity schools have for decades taught false ancient history, thus not equipping their students to trust the word of God but rather believe faulty man's words.
  18. Some suggest that the Exodus walk went all the way to the tip of the Sinai peninsula, crossed there the Gulf of Aqaba into Arabia and then to the Arabian Mt. Sinai from there. Not so! The persuing Egyptian army and government followed Israel to the point where they crossed the Gulf, and it is much less likely that this route is correct. The main point against it is that they could not reach that point within the seven day walking limit. - This scenario is just someone's idea to sell a book for a few dollars.
  19. When Israel crossed the Sea of Reeds, they walked on dry ground (Ex. 14:29; Neh. 9] where moments before deep water was. Why? Because they walked on top of the Nuweiba land bridge, from which the water ran off on its sides, toward the opposite coast located in Saudi-Arabia, while the walls of water on either side stood held up by winds a distance away with foaming billows at the top, Psalm 78:13.
  20. After Israel had crossed the Red Sea, and the whole Egyptian military force, officials and government had drowned, the Bible says, "they departed from the land of Egypt." Ex. 13:18; 16:1, and were then in another country: in what we call today Saudi Arabia.
  21. The points we brought up so far, taken together, are only true for the Nuweiba location, they do not fit any other place along Israel's route out of Egypt.
  22. The Nuweiba site is also better confirmed by the Elijah account, for this prophet fled from Jezebel to Mt. Horeb which was 40 days and nights away from Samaria (1.Ki. 19:8); that was achievable toward Jebel al Lawz, but hardly to the area near the tip of the Sinai peninsula where some placed the scene of events what we describe above, since he could walk for the most part through the rift valley and since it was a shorter distance.
  23. When in Arabia, as they were walking toward Mt. Horeb/Sinai, Israel encountered the Amalekites and a fight broke out. As long as Moses held up his arms, Israel would win until the two nations separated. From then on out the Amalekites remained Israel's enemies, and they proceeded toward the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, and a portion of their people invaded Egypt, ruling over it for the next 400 some years, while those at the `River of Egypt', at El Arish built their large fortified position (Joshua 15:47; 2.Kings 24:7), which they held until King Saul was sent of God to uproot them, 1.Sam. 14:47-53; 15:1-9.
  24. If the traditional Mt. Sinai on the peninsula of Sinai was the mount where Moses received the 10 commandments of God, why would the nation of the Amalekites wander around in that dry and forsaken land for meager winnings? It is an unnecessary view of history, for the events took place in Arabia.

From Moses to Joshua

The man Joshua appears suddenly in the Biblical record in Exodus 17:9. We have no introduction or account about his person. But his name bears a relationship to Jesus and so does his entire life. Joshua was the man chosen by God to lead His people Israel into the Promised Land after Moses had died. The account of this we find in the first chapter of the Bible book bearing his name, Joshua chapter 1. It was by the hand of Moses that God led the sizable nation of Israel out of the midst of another sizable nation, like it has never happened before and after, "... has any god ever attempted to go and take a nation for himself from the midst of another nation ... ?" Deut. 4:34.

The crossing of the Jordan is a symbol for death, spiritual death to sin. When people die, like it happened to Moses, a new chapter for the life of the survivors starts. So it is today. When someone in the family dies, seek the Lord for guidance and take courage, for a new, untried life is just before you. Be like Joshua who never committed sins that would have separated him from the Lord. As he got Israel ready to cross the Jordan River at a time when the spring melt waters flushed down from the heights of Mt. Hermon (east of Damascus), a trip starting from ca. 9000 feet (2700 m) to 1300 feet (390 m) below sea level (a drop of 10300 feet, 3090 m, 3 km plus); while it was not a large river, the volume of water gushing down could be intimidating. [400] Meanwhile the people from Jericho could see Israel congregating on the eastern shore of Jordan. They could see the pillar of clouds by day and the pillar of fire at night. They knew exactly that changes of their way of life were in the air. They felt paralyzed to do anything about it. Not knowing the Lord, their way of thinking did not prepare them for anything that they were to witness. So it is today. People know these Bible accounts, but they relegate them into myths and tales, not knowing that accurate history is presented designed to draw our attention to them for there are life saving lessons contained in them.

The Lord told Joshua to be strong and courageous. That means he was telling him to be a leader like Moses was. Joshua knew the Lord was with him as long as he kept the commandments of God and modeled them for his people.

Joshua, the son of the `eternal' (Nun), thought it wise to send two spies or witnesses, to reconnoiter the state of affairs on the other side of Jordan. These two represent the Word of God, the Old and New Testament. They took shelter in the house of Rahab, the local inn keeper. As they sat and listened, the locals realized that these two were not from among them and demanded Rahab to hand them over. But she was a fast thinker and told them, to hurry on to Jordan, for they had just left. With that she saved the life of these two men. That accomplished she hid them on her roof among the roles of scarlet colored cloth bales which she produced for a living. We may say that this scarlet cloth represents that God's people can be hid in the blood of Christ away from the reach of sin. When she sent the spies away, she was told to hang a scarlet scarf out the upper window of her city wall home. She did that right away. We should act right away too when we hear the message that can save our life out of this world of sin, we should never delay such decisions for they allow the evil one to attack and cause people to forget quickly what they had passed up to do. It has cost salvation from this world of sin for many.

The day had come for Israel to cross the Jordan. Twelve priests would carry the `Ark of the Covenant' to its shore and by faith take a step into the water if they wanted to cross. Had they said, `Oh, we wait till the Lord dries up the water,' that miracle would never have happened. Likewise many miss out on miracles in their life because of lack of faith. We are to step out in faith right away so we will not be tempted with all the `why nows' and `why at all.' Remember, do not leave the church, for that is where the cloud is.

When they stepped into the water, it ceased to flow and they walked once again on dry ground, like they did when crossing the Red Sea. Why is that important? When we are resolute in matters of faith, we will arrive clean, not muddied up by sin, on the other side.

The Called and Chosen of God

God has called each one of us who loves to contemplate our Father in Heaven. It is important to understand what it means to be called by God and how to fulfill His calling. To do that we read a few scriptures.

"So those servants went out into the highways, and gathered together all as many as they found, both bad and good: and the wedding was furnished with guests. And when the king came in to see the guests, he saw there a man which had not on a wedding garment: And he saith unto him, Friend, how camest thou in hither not having a wedding garment? And he was speechless. Then said the king to the servants, Bind him hand and foot, and take him away, and cast him into outer darkness; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth. For many are called, but few are chosen." Matthew 22:10-14.

How can we know what `being called of God' means for us to accomplish?

What are we called to do?

"According as his divine power hath given unto us all things that pertain unto life and godliness, through the knowledge of him that hath called us to glory and virtue: Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises: that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust." 2.Peter 1:3,4.

What is the glory of God spoken of here?

And Moses said,

"I beseech thee, show me thy glory." . . . And the Lord passed by before him, and proclaimed, The Lord, The Lord God, merciful and gracious, longsuffering, and abundant in goodness and truth, Keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by no means clear the guilty; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the children's children, unto the third and to the fourth generation." Exodus 33:18; 34:6,7.

From the context and by comparison we can tell, that `virtue' means `moral excellence, modesty or purity.' Everyone is called to desire those qualities and include them in their life style, for such qualities are the ticket to be sons and daughters of God around whom no sin can exist, for God's heaven is pure.

But why are only a few chosen of those who were called?

Well, think of Israel, the people God had chosen to represent His form of government on earth.

They loved a degraded life style, promiscuous sinning, and dark alleys and selfish, prideful thoughts - all things that lead to insecurity, fear, crime and may-ham.

In other words, they rather live a few years doing that, instead for eternity, living out God's principles. - Which they just could not envision, for their minds were oriented toward their carnal nature only, instead of toward loving God, the Giver of all good things around them.

So we ask, who are the few that are chosen and what characterizes them?

The Bible says,

"But we are bound to give thanks alway to God for you, brethren beloved of the Lord, because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation (1) through sanctification of the Spirit and (2) belief of the truth." 2.Thessalonians 2:13.

Now, does #1 and 2, sound too hard to use as your chosen direction in this life? Does it?

I hope you will agree with God and say, `No. It doesn't sound too hard. Not to me.'

Well, the Bible gives us a hint why many are called but only a few are chosen.

Here it is ...

"Because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it." Matthew 7:14.

In other words, the reason why so few have the experience of being chosen is, because the Bible qualifications for that are these:

"Behold, I have refined thee, but not with silver; I have chosen thee in the furnace of affliction." Isaiah 48:10.

Yeah. Those called of God may have to live a life of difficulties, a life in which they are not the favorite or popular person in front of a crowd, for they will not follow their fleshly inclinations, but walk after how the Spirit of God will lead them. They decided to be a disciple of Jesus and keep the commandments and love the testimony of Jesus.

So, who are those who endure this life on earth, in order to be with the One they love, be with God?

James, the brother of Jesus said about them,"My brethren, count it all joy when ye fall into divers temptations." James 1:2.

Such temptations they decided to overcome and commit them no more.

May this help you to strengthen your faith in God who teaches us many, many great lessons in this book, the Bible, the Word of God. Oh, that some in Israel of today would heed these words.

Notes and References

[10] Comment: While work in brick is mentioned in particular that does not rule out that the Israelites also worked in rock and stone as may be indicated by the phrase "... in all manner of service ..." Ex. 1:14. The latest opinions based on electron microscope studies of pyramid material from three sources is interpreted as a type of concrete for at least some of the stone material found in the great pyramids. [M.W. Barsoum, A. Ganguly, G. Hug (2006) "Microstructural Evidence of Reconstituted Limestone Blocks in the Great Pyramids of Egypt", Journal of the American Ceramic Society 89(12), 3788–3796.] On the other hand, all rocks formed by concretion.

[12] Some see in the Bedouin figures of the tomb of Khnum-Hotep at Beni Hassan a representative group of the Israelites. That may be so only in a very general way in that desert travelers had characteristic appearances probably over many centuries and even millennia. See J. Hoffmeier, Out of Egypt in BAR, Jan, 2007, p. 30-41.

[13] The proposed setting of the Exodus coincident with the Hyksos invasion was based on the assumption that the Ramesside line of the Sothis list just preceded the Hyksos invasion, and that the Sothis List at this point is in proper order. This assumption is contrary to popular opinion which makes this line of kings identical to the later Ramessides of the 20th Dynasty but misplaced in the list by the unknown author. (Kings numbered 59-61 of this list are obvious misplacements from the 1st Dynasty. (Table V, XV) So we introduce now evidence confirming the correctness of the Sothis list order at this point. The Hyksos invasion is placed by modern historians in the late 13th Dynasty. Earlier proposals had set it at the beginning of this dynasty, but evidence produced by Brugsch indicated that such a placement was out of the question. He wrote,
"As we have already remarked, the kings who immediately followed the Pharaohs of the 12th Dynasty in the kingdom were still in full possession of Upper and Lower Egypt. For a long time the opinion was prevalent, that the 13th Dynasty marked the exact epoch of the invasion of the foreigners, so that these latter must have already gained a firm footing in the Egyptian low country, or at least on its eastern frontier. In opposition to this, however, we have the well-established fact that several kings of the 13th Dynasty, and not only those who were first in order of time, enjoyed in the Delta . . . perfect leisure and quiet to erect monuments, the remains of which have been preserved to the present time and their magnitude and style do not point at all to their having been hastily constructed. In the days of their authors and their erection peaceful times must have prevailed, and nothing warrants the notion of a foreign occupation by the side of native kings . . . The fact is established beyond doubt that this sudden attack of the foreigners must have taken place towards the end of the 13th Dynasty." [Henry Brugsch-Bey, `Egypt Under the Pharaohs', Translation by William Smith, 2nd ed. 1881, Vol. II, p. 211.]

[15] How the faint echoes of the names of the 12 tribes of Israel left their mark in Egypt can best be seen by names such as Abu Roash/Reuben, Zayet el Aryan/Zebulon, Saqqara/Issachar, Dashur/Dan-Gad-Asher and Lisht/Naphthali, Exodus 1:7.
In the Mesopotamien history of the time of David and on, the tribe of Reuben/Ruben may have later on been known in secular sources as the "Ra-ab-ay-yi" (2.Chr. 5:9,10; Quoted by Dean Hickman as, BH, chap. 5, p. 65.) Reading: Samsi-Addu (Shamshi-Adad) wrote to Iazmah-Addu (Iasmakh-Adad) in Mari: "... the proposal to take a census of the Benjamites, about which you have written me ... The Benjamites are not well disposed to the idea of a census. If you carry it out, their kinsmen, the Ra-ab-ay-yi, who live on the other bank of the river, will hear of it. They will be annoyed with them and will not return to their country. On no account should this census be taken. . . ."
Moses himself was a miracle baby. He was born at a time when all new born boys were marked for death by Satanic powers personified by Pharaoh's law making. What comes around, goes around. Today we have very similar situations in the world. They are harbingers of the end of despotism and the coming reign of Christ.

[16] "When the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth His Son, . . . to redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons." Galatians 4:4, 5.
Jesus Christ's coming was foretold in Eden. When Adam and Eve first heard the promise, they looked for its speedy fulfillment. They joyfully welcomed their first-born son, hoping that he might be the Deliverer. But the fulfillment of the promise tarried. Those who first received it died without the sight. From the days of Enoch the promise was repeated through patriarchs and prophets, keeping alive the hope of His appearing, and yet He came not. The prophecy of Daniel revealed the time of His advent, but not all rightly interpreted the message. Century after century passed away; the voices of the prophets ceased. The hand of the oppressor was heavy upon Israel, and many were ready to exclaim, "The days are prolonged, and every vision faileth." Ezekiel 12:22.
But like the stars in the vast orbits of their appointed path, God's purposes know no haste and no delay. Through the symbols of the great darkness and the smoking furnace, God had revealed to Abraham the bondage of Israel in Egypt, and had declared that the time of their sojourning should be four hundred years. When the great clock of time pointed to that hour, Jesus was born in Bethlehem. "When the fullness of the time was come, God sent forth His Son." Providence had directed the movements of nations, and the tide of human impulse and influence, until the world was ripe for the coming of the Deliverer. The nations were united under one Roman government. The one language (Greek) was widely spoken, and was everywhere recognized as the language of literature. From all lands the Jews of the dispersion gathered to Jerusalem to the annual feasts. As these returned to the places of the start of their journey, they could spread throughout the world the tidings of the Messiah's coming.
At this time the systems of heathenism were losing their hold upon the people. Men were weary of pageant and fable. They longed for a religion that could satisfy the heart. While the light of truth seemed to have departed from among men, there were souls who were looking for light, and who were filled with perplexity and sorrow. They were thirsting for a knowledge of the living God, for some assurance of a life beyond the grave.
As the Jews had departed from God, faith had grown dim, and hope had well-nigh ceased to illuminate the future. So it is today in Israel. The words of the prophets were and are uncomprehended even today. To the masses of the people steeped in their false religions, death was a dreaded mystery; beyond was uncertainty and gloom. It was not alone the wailing of the mothers of Bethlehem, but the cry from the great heart of humanity, that was borne to the prophet across the centuries, - the voice heard in Ramah, "lamentation, and weeping, and great mourning, Rachel weeping for her children, and would not be comforted, because they are not." Matthew 2:18. In "the region and shadow of death," men sat unsolaced. With longing eyes they looked for the coming of the Deliverer, when the darkness should be dispelled, and the mystery of the future should be made plain.
Outside of the Jewish nation, from where the three wise men came, there were men who foretold the appearance of a divine instructor. These men were seeking for truth while the Jews rejected so many of God's messengers, and to those men the Spirit of Inspiration was imparted. One after another, like stars in the darkened heavens, such teachers had arisen. Their words of prophecy had kindled hope in the hearts of thousands of the Gentile world.
For hundreds of years the Scriptures had been translated into the Greek language, then widely spoken throughout the Roman Empire. The Jews were scattered everywhere, and their expectation of the Messiah's coming was to some extent shared by the Gentiles. Among those whom the Jews styled heathen were men who had a better understanding of the Scripture prophecies concerning the Messiah than had the teachers in Israel. There were some who hoped for His coming as a deliverer from sin. Philosophers endeavored to study into the mystery of the Hebrew economy. But the bigotry of the Jews hindered the spread of the light. Intent on maintaining the separation between themselves and other nations, they were unwilling to impart the knowledge they still possessed concerning the symbolic service. The true Interpreter must come. The One whom all these types prefigured must explain their significance.
Through nature, through types and symbols, through patriarchs and prophets, God had spoken to the world. Lessons must be given to humanity in the language of humanity. The Messenger of the covenant must speak, Malachi 3:1. His voice must be heard in His own temple. Christ must come to utter words which should be clearly and definitely understood. He, the author of truth, must separate truth from the chaff of man's utterance, which had made it of no effect. The principles of God's government and the plan of redemption must be clearly defined. The lessons of the Old Testament must be fully set before men.
Among the Jews there were yet steadfast souls, descendants of that holy line through whom a knowledge of God had been preserved. These still looked for the hope of the promise made unto the fathers. They strengthened their faith by dwelling upon the assurance given through Moses, "A Prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; Him shall ye hear in all things whatsoever He shall say unto you." Acts 3:22. Again, they read how the Lord would anoint One "to preach good tidings unto the meek," "to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives," and to declare the "acceptable year of the Lord." Isaiah 61:1, 2. They read how He would "set judgment in the earth," how the isles should "wait for His law," how the Gentiles should come to His light, and kings to the brightness of His rising. Isaiah 42:4; 60:3.
The dying words of Jacob filled them with hope: "The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come." Genesis 49:10. The waning power of Israel testified that the Messiah's coming was at hand. The prophecy of Daniel pictured the glory of His reign over an empire which should succeed all earthly kingdoms; and, said the prophet, "It shall stand forever." Daniel 2:44. While few understood the nature of Christ's mission, there was a widespread expectation of a mighty prince who should establish his kingdom in Israel, and who should come as a deliverer to the nations.
The fullness of the time had come. Humanity, becoming more degraded through ages of transgression, called for the coming of the Redeemer. Satan had been working to make the gulf deep and impassable between earth and heaven. By his falsehoods he had emboldened men in sin. It was his purpose to wear out the forbearance of God, and to extinguish His love for man, so that He would abandon the world to satanic jurisdiction.
Satan was seeking to shut out from men a knowledge of God, to turn their attention from the temple of God, and to establish his own kingdom. His strife for supremacy had seemed to be almost wholly successful. It is true that in every generation God had His agencies. Even among the heathen there were men through whom Christ was working to uplift the people from their sin and degradation. But these men were despised and hated. Many of them suffered a violent death. The dark shadow that Satan had cast over the world grew deeper and deeper.
Through heathenism, Satan had for ages turned men away from God; but he won his great triumph in perverting the faith of Israel. By contemplating and worshiping their own conceptions, the heathen had lost a knowledge of God, and had become more and more corrupt. So it was with Israel. The principle that man can save himself by his own works lay at the foundation of every heathen religion; it had now become the principle of the Jewish religion. Satan had implanted this principle. Wherever it is held, men have no barrier against sin.
Today we find this strange return to heathenism and open defiance to the only true God, Creator of all we see. But this too was foretold by the prophets that it must happen in the time of the end of the 6000 year history of sin reigning on earth by prophets like Daniel and the Apostle John in Revelation.
The message of salvation is communicated to men through human agencies. But the Jews had sought to make a monopoly of the truth which is eternal life. They had hoarded the living manna, and it had turned to corruption, Ex. 16:21-28. The religion which they tried to shut up to themselves became an offense. They robbed God of His glory, and defrauded the world by a counterfeit of the gospel. They had refused to surrender themselves to God for the salvation of the world, and they became agents of Satan for its destruction.
The people whom God had called to be the pillar and ground of the truth had become representatives of Satan. If they would recognize the true faith God had given them today, per chance God might save many among them even now in this late hour in the history of sin on earth. But they were doing the work that Satan desired them to do, taking a course to misrepresent the character of God, and cause the world to look upon Him as a tyrant. The very priests who ministered in the temple had lost sight of the significance of the service they performed. They had ceased to look beyond the symbol to the thing signified. In presenting the sacrificial offerings they were as actors in a play. The ordinances which God Himself had appointed were made the means of blinding the mind and hardening the heart. God could do no more for man through these channels. The whole system must be swept away.
The deception of sin had reached its height. All the agencies for depraving the souls of men had been put in operation. The Son of God, looking upon the world, beheld suffering and misery. With pity He saw how men had become victims of satanic cruelty. He looked with compassion upon those who were being corrupted, murdered, and lost. They had chosen a ruler who chained them to his car as captives. Bewildered and deceived, they were moving on in gloomy procession toward eternal ruin,--to death in which is no hope of life, toward night to which comes no morning. Satanic agencies were incorporated with men. The bodies of human beings, made for the dwelling place of God, had become the habitation of demons. The senses, the nerves, the passions, the organs of men, were worked by supernatural agencies in the indulgence of the vilest lust. The very stamp of demons was impressed upon the countenances of men. Human faces reflected the expression of the legions of evil with which they were possessed. Such was the prospect upon which the world's Redeemer looked. What a spectacle for Infinite Purity to behold!
Sin had become a science, and vice was consecrated as a part of religion. Rebellion had struck its roots deep into the heart, and the hostility of man was most violent against heaven as it is today. It was demonstrated before the universe that, apart from God, humanity could not be uplifted. A new element of life and power must be imparted by Him who made the world. In Jewish times it was Christ's first coming, today it is His return as the Saviour of the world when He comes again with all the angels, all the hosts of heaven, in all the glory heaven displays to end the reign of sin and resurrect the dead and save His people.
In the days of the prophecied first coming of Christ, with intense interest the unfallen worlds had watched to see Jehovah arise, and sweep away the inhabitants of the earth. And if God should do this, Satan was ready to carry out his plan for securing to himself the allegiance of heavenly beings. He had declared that the principles of God's government make forgiveness impossible. Had the world been destroyed, he would have claimed that his accusations were proved true. He was ready to cast blame upon God, and to spread his rebellion to the worlds above. But instead of destroying the world, God sent His Son to save it. Though corruption and defiance might be seen in every part of the alien province, a way for its recovery was provided. At the very crisis, when Satan seemed about to triumph, the Son of God came with the embassage of divine grace. Through every age, through every hour, the love of God had been exercised toward the fallen race. Notwithstanding the perversity of men, the signals of mercy had been continually exhibited. And when the fullness of the time had come, the Deity was glorified by pouring upon the world a flood of healing grace that was never to be obstructed or withdrawn till the plan of salvation should be fulfilled.
Satan was exulting that he had succeeded in debasing the image of God in humanity. Then Jesus came to restore in man the image of his Maker. None but Christ can fashion anew the character that has been ruined by sin. He came to expel the demons that had controlled the will. He came to lift us up from the dust, to reshape the marred character after the pattern of His divine character, and to make it beautiful with His own glory.
Today Satan is working towards his goal to mislead and destroy as many as he can to rob them of promised life in heaven if they repent and obey God, the life Satan had to leave when sin was found in him. Why then do people follow sinful, yet religious appearing men's pronouncements instead of those of God alone? That need not be but few are they who study out the reasons. You may do it here in the various titles.

[20] Samuel Sharpe, `The Early History of Egypt', London, 1836, p. 13.

[22] In later centuries when the life expectancy was shorter children were weaned by age three, like Samuel, 1.Sam. 2:23,24. In 2.Maccabeas 7:28, we learn that Israelite children were weaned by age three. - Reaching age five is a critical age. It means a child survived the many childhood diseases which plagued mankind even then, and they could at that time be considered heirs to their family.

[23] Peter Clayton, Chronicles of the Pharaohs, p. 90. The book shows a rare, perfectly preserved red granite statue of Sobekhotep IV (p. 92), and mentions that Wahneferhotep, the son of Neferhotep I, is known from a wooden ushabti found at Lisht, and that he apparently died before his father, or should we say, he died before his father, as a result of being the first born son ("And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the first born of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant ... And there shall be a great cry through Egypt" Ex. 11:5,6) during the 10th plague!? The first born of Israel were saved only because of the faith and obedience to the Lord's command having to do with the Pasha Feast institution. Neferhotep must have been a stiff necked man, who despite great signs worked before his very eyes, did not comprehend who he was dealing with. So it is today too, man doesn't see spiritual truths brightly shining from God's word, and so is held responsible for willful neglect to study it out and be saved by faith.

[24] Ashton & Down, Unwrapping the Pharaohs, p. 100, quoting Dr. Rosalie David's The Pyramid Builders of Ancient Egypt.

[25] An artist's representation of a frog, from the Giza stele of Wepemnofret, can be seen in Nat. Geogr., Every Day Life in Bible Times, p. 179. The frog had a temple, Ast-Heqit, E.W. Budge, p. 80.; The word `abnekh' utilizes a frog or toad.; The word `qarr' means frog, p. 764a.

[26] In 1.Sam. 6:6 it is Pharaoh himself who is hardening his heart. It depends on the element on which sunlight (truth) shines if it hardens or melts - ice melts, clay hardens. And the words of Pharaoh have ever since stood for what those believe who deny that a Creator God who owns the world exists.

[28] During their lengthy stay in Egypt, from ca. the 30th birthday of Joseph to the 80th year of Moses, the Israelites left pottery signs of their presence in the land of their sojourn. For more on this click Here!

[30] Israel traveled day and night until to the place of the parting of the sea, "And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night." Ex. 13:21. For more see with appropriate caution `'.

[32] For a full page satellite color image of the Sinai peninsula showing also quite well Nuweiba Beach see BAR (`Biblical Archaeology Review'), July/August 1984, p. 56.
Other archaeologists take a view which they consider to be more cautious in the eyes of their peers, and look for the `Sea of Reeds' in the eastern Delta region where anciently swamps and canals were located. To us this view seems to ignore the description of wilderness found in the Book of Exodus. The path toward Gaza, the region where the Philistines lived, does not match the description found in the Bible. Moses was told to not travel through that area. In addition let us remember that Mt. Horeb/Sinai was were Moses hid from Pharaoh for 40 years. We may learn from this that like the holy law of God was given to man on Mt. Horeb, we today can have holy time experience on God's holy day. It fits hardly the northern desert fringe of the Sinai from the Nile Delta's region of Avaris to Gaza. We believe the Exodus was a much bolder undertaking of a people needing to get completely out of reach of Egypt's might and we believe that the land bridge at Nuweiba makes that location without question the true spot for the parting of the water.
Furthermore, we believe that Paul knew what he was talking about when he spoke of Mt. Sinai in Arabia. It is the same Arabia for Moses', Paul's and our time.
Another beach, the Merkhah Bay south of Abu Zeneimeh' (Zenima), is shown and referenced in W.F. Albright, `Exploring in Sinai with the University of California African Expedition' in BASOR, Feb 1948, p. 5-(10)-20. This beach is located on the Sinai side of the Gulf of Suez a few miles north of where the Wadi Feiran leaves the coast.
We believe the PBS movie, `Walking the Bible', knows only the traditional account of the route of the Exodus.
See also Alberto Siliotti, Guide to the Exploration of the Sinai, White Star Publishers, 2001; This book presents numerous photos of the Sinai's famous and beautiful sites, with too much on Gebel Musa, the traditional Mt. Sinai, and not enough on Nuweiba Beach, the site of the parting of the sea as presented here, no doubt because to consider Nuweiba as the point where the sea parted is quite new due to the apparent circumstance that no one, or not many, knew about the underwater land bridge, and if they knew about it, may have thought it too deep for consideration not realizing that the return of the wall of water from both sides may have washed off a considerable amount of rocks and sand from the top of that landbridge, and therefore, at the time of the Exodus it was higher. It is truly pathetic to read Israeli accounts, for they have let their false chronology hide vital facts of their history to this day. In their effort to be accepted by their fellows, they continue in their errant ways.

Nuweiba beach far view [36] We believe that Mount Sinia in Arabia was in Saudi Arabia on the basis that during Old and Middle Kingdom (12th dynasty) times the Sinai Peninsula was prospected for its resources by the Egyptians. It was mostly their backyard. It was their source of turquoise, copper and many other minerals. In Sinai, the Israelites would probably not have been able to live in peace from Egyptian raids for 40 years, especially if one espouses the conventional scenario of this time belonging to the 18th Dynasty. These considerations, therefore, are strong reasons to realize that the Hyksos/ Amalekites began to rule over much of Egypt soon after their war with Israel in the region of Mt. Jebel al Lawz/ Sinai in Arabia.

[37] The Egyptian names for watchtower are: (1) petra, (2) maar, (3) maanrat, (4) maart, (4) res; all of which have the `eye' in common.

[38] Red Sea in Hebrew is - , `yam šup' (pronounced yahm soof), and in Greek it is, `Erythra Thalassa.' - - Anciently the `Red Sea' was applied to the sea which led to Eilat as well as what we call today the Persian Gulf. That shows that the Red Sea was loosely known as the sea surrounding Arabia by land dwellers, even when it was surrounding Arabia (where the Hagarites lived, 1.Chr. 5:18-22) in the east or the west.
What about, could the crossing have occurred across the Suez side of the peninsula of Sinai? We do not hold that view. It does not fit all the data. No one has ever been able to ascertain an actual location along those shores or investigated the underwater conditions. It presents problems with the nation of the Amalekites to have been in Sinai, a dry desert even in those days. It minimizes the power of God somewhat. It is a compromise to still get Israel to arrive at the old, traditional site of Mt. Sinai where there was not the plenty of space for all of Israel to congregate as required in the Word of God.

[40] Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Bk. II, ch. XV, Sec. 3.

[50] The mountain peak does have a darkened appearance as if scorched by the `glory of God' (Ex. 19:18) according to visitors. We were informed that this appearance is not obvious when walking on the mountain top itself but only from a distance. We also learned that the Arabic word `lawz' means almonds, the `Mountain of Almonds'. We are not supposing that the `Mountain of the Law' is a translation of `Jebel el Lawz' but rather taken from Moses account. This `Almond' mountain may also help to understand the `rod of Aaron' that budded. [See the Aaronic Prayer in Numb. 6:24-26.]

[52] Rama: The author of a book on India gives an account of the Indian Moses, Rama, the first part of whose name I find has some resonance with Moses' full Egyptian name Re-mu-sa (or Musare), Rama = Remu? His chronological estimation for Rama's era is hopelessly exaggerated, however. The Ramayana, attributed to the poet Valmiki, was written down during the first century A.D., although it is thought to be based on oral traditions that go back six or seven centuries earlier – still however much later than Moses:
The Indian epic called the Ramayana tells the story of the hero Rama, who led his people on a journey through the heart of Asia finally to reach India more than five thousand years ago. Rama, too, was a great lawgiver and a hero of extraordinary powers. He caused springs to gush forth in the deserts through which he led his people (cf. Exodus 17:6), provided them with a kind of manna to eat (cf. Exodus 16:3-35), and suppressed a virulent plague with the sacred drink soma, India's 'water of life'. Finally he conquered the 'promised land', Sri Lanka, he crossed the sea via a land bridge apparently exposed by the low tide at a place still known as the Bridge of Rama. [See correlation with Exodus landbridge.] Like Moses, Rama is depicted with rays of light streaming from his head (the flames of the enlightened one …).

[70] Hence their Semitic origin according to scholarly views. See Nina Jidejian, Tyre through the Ages, Beirut, 1969, p. 14, referencing T. Save-Soderbergh, `The Hyksos Rule in Egypt' in JEA, XXXVII, 1951, p. 53-71.

[90] Obviously the Amalekites must have come from a highly populated area. For them to get to the traditional Mt. Sinai they would have had to wander through the desolate, dry Sinai, just to do what? Find and fight Israel?

[100] Donald Redford, `Egypt, Canaan and Israel in Ancient Times', Princeton, 1992, p. 102. (Emphasis ours)

[111] "The education of the Israelites included all their habits of life. Everything that concerned their well-being was the subject of divine solicitude, and came within the province of divine law. Even in providing their food, God sought their highest good. The manna with which He fed them in the wilderness was of a nature to promote physical, mental, and moral strength, unlike today (2-28-14, where we are fed bread containing poisons like ADA without us realizing it. Though so many of them rebelled against the restriction of their diet, and longed to return to the days when, they said, "We sat by the fleshpots, and when we did eat bread to the full" (Exodus 16:3), yet the wisdom of God's choice for them was vindicated in a manner they could not gainsay. Notwithstanding the hardships of their wilderness life, there was not a feeble one in all their tribes. (Ps. 105:37)
Our bodies are built up from the food we eat. There is a constant breaking down of the tissues of the body; every movement of every organ involves waste, and this waste is repaired from our food. Each organ of the body requires its share of nutrition. The brain must be supplied with its portion; the bones, muscles, and nerves demand theirs. It is a wonderful process that transforms the food into blood and uses this blood to build up the varied parts of the body; but this process is going on continually, supplying with life and strength each nerve, muscle, and tissue." {CG 378.2-3.}

[120] God's Law was proclaimed from Mt. Sinai in the presence of His heavenly Host - ("m'rebabah kadesh", `from holy myriads', (where the Hebr. letter `M' serves as a multiplier of thousands, namely myriads), that is `Myriads of holy angels' or as we read (v.2), "ten thousands of saints"(KJV), "myriads of holy ones" (NEB). This seems to be a play on words with Dt. 32:51 where the Hebrew is slightly different, reading , `Meribah-Kadesh, a physical location name in the Sinai area. Therefore, let us not be mistaken about a place name and a reference to the angels of the Lord, for the glory of God is a consuming fire to anything of sin but a benevolent light to His saints. Note: The Septuagint verifies the word `myriad' in Dt. 33:2 by using, "myriasin kadesh".

[145] Miriam, sister of Moses is well known for her song, the song of Miriam, Exodus 15:20-21a; A Dead Sea fragment contains what has been understood as a more complete Song of Miriam, it reads, "you despised [or: you plundered] . . .; for the triumph of . . .; You are great, a savior. . .; the hope of the enemy perishes and he is . . .; they perished in the mighty waters, the enemy . . .; and he exalted her to their heights ... you gave . . .; wor]king a triumph." (BAR, May 1994, p. 63.) Compare this with the prayer or song of Hannah, 1. Samuel 2:1-2.; and the prayer of Judith, Judith 16:6,7.; A great defender of the Exodus event in Israel is Elie Wiesel who has no doubt that it occurred, except he does not know how. He made this comment in an interview, in which Frank Cross was the doubter and nay sayer. That is a good reason why it is so important to get our message out for the Exodus was the single most important event for the beginning history of Israel. [BAR, Jul/Aug 2004, p. 33]

[150] God had led Israel out of Egypt, but Egypt was still in them - in particular in the mixed multitude. The experience of Israel following the Exodus is a lesson about what sin has done to man. Jeremiah would say later, "The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked: who can know it?" Jer. 17:9. But Moses called Israel "Jeshunun", an honorable name which means, `a straight, upright, pious' people (Luther Bible), Dt. 32:15; 33:5; Isaiah 44:2. Even though God is invisible to man now, he granted them the pillar of clouds by day and the pillar of fire at night as tokens of His presence. That, however, was not enough. They desired also the lasciviousness of idolatry and demanded that a golden calf be made for them to worship and dance around. Only shortly before that, they had heard the law of God spoken from Mt. Sinai, yet their selfish desires completely obscured clear thinking and reason and they dared to reject the God who had led them mightily to safety and destroyed their enemies before their eyes. That is what sin does. It puts up man's wishes before those of God. The result is suffering and separation from the protecting care of their Maker as it is still today. By drinking the water from the stream where the gold dust was spilled into, God showed them the utter worthlessness of the god they desired to worship.

[155] 3T 293.3-303.3.

[160] One important consideration on what kind of "facts" we ought to believe in has to do with modern man's interpretation of archaeological "facts." Reviewing the literature, readers will soon realize that today's historians write off, marginalize or deny the early history of what we read in the Bible. That ought not to surprise us, because Satan hates God's Word. All those metal ages and pottery derived ages are suspect since they lead to interpretations that in effect deny what we read in the Bible. Bible believing Christians ought to know that Bible faith cannot be mixed in any way with a form of Bible history which denies what we read in its pages. How did that happen? Historians convinced that amoebas turned into opera singers and all the creatures we see today, over extended all their finds on the time scale since for them there was no Exodus, no Flood and no Creation. The millions of years also would mean that, ultimately God is to be blamed for death, disease, and suffering occurring for a very long time before Adam appeared, instead of blaming our sin for suffering and death. Therefore, if Bible believing Christians use their assertions in any way, build their house of faith on sand when it comes to combining written history with what archaeology is saying. Extra Biblical, written history, is the only kind we can put a measure of trust in as long as it jives with what we read in God's Word. Written history supports that the era of the early kings of Israel were contemporaries with the early kings of the 18th Dynasty in Egypt. That puts the Exodus in Old Kingdom times. It makes the Hyksos the same people as the Amalekites, things we point out repeatedly. It makes Thutmoses III to be Shishak of the days of Rehoboam. It makes Ben Hadad the same person as King Ashurnasirpal, Tushrata and Yuya. May this suffice for this reference. We just recently reviewed this history and cannot find anything in the magazines on archaeology and articles on Bible history that can successfully refute it. Presenting all the details is a long story which we tell in various presentations, suffice it to say, the Exodus did not take place in the Late Bronze Age period but earlier. The metal ages have to be reexamined, giving consideration to written information, and redated, if one wants to arrive at truth. As of now all these findings of archaeology are so intricately written up - falsely so - that it is a nightmarish task to go through it all again once more, that is why our institutions of higher learning succumb to evolutionistic tenants on the subject of ancient Bible history. That ought not to be so, we will fight it. This is not a question of the majority wins, it is a question of integrity, faithfulness in God's Word and carefulness and what to believe today if things do not buttress the Word of God in everything.

[200] See Maxwell Blakeney, Did Christ Overrule Moses? in Adventist Review, July 26, 2007, p. 14-16.

[350] On the matter of the name Ramesse or Ramses in the Book of Exodus, we have this to say. "It should be noted first that there were numerous Egyptian rulers by the name of Rameses; and secondly that the assumption which supposes that no other of these Ramessides than Ramses II can be considered as the builder of Pi-Rameses rests heavily on the traditional chronology of Egypt, which, if in error, leaves room for presuming that all other possibilities have not been exhausted; and thirdly, we may raise the question as to the validity of the assumption which supposes that the Pi-Rameses of late Egyptian history is the Ramses (sic) of the Exodus record; and finally, it may be noted that the name Ramses II is also to be found on structures from one end of Egypt to the other, which fact gives every indication that his name has been added after chiselling out the original name. Ramses II was not necessarily the builder of all the monuments which bear his name. In light of these considerations, the proof is incomplete that Ramses II was the builder of the city Ramses (sic) of the Exodus event."
Even if it is granted that the site of Pi-Rameses is that of the Ramses of Scripture it does not necessarily follow that Ramses II was the Pharaoh of the Oppression. As pointed out by G. Ernest Wright, the original city which occupied that site was probably destroyed by Ahmose at the time the Hyksos were driven out of Egypt.' (`Biblical Archaeology', 1957, unknown vol., p. 60) - So where could the name `Rameses' or `Ramesse' have come from? We find at least six names of that sort in the Sothis king list, numbers 18, 19 and 21-24., among the 13th Dynasty potentates. Thus, there is no need to consider the 19th and 20th Dynasty on this matter at all. The 13th Dynasty were more prominently active in Egypt during the Hyksos/Amalekite occuption, i.e. from the Exodus to the time of Ahmose, first king of the 18th Dynasty.

[400] At this point we may get an idea about post-flood/ice-age conditions in Palestine.

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The 2 Covenants
The Crossing of the Red Sea Bible Study

By being baptized, that is immersed in water, the believer is saying good-bye to the old life of sin, which by faith is surrendered to the cross of Christ. When the believer is raised out of the waters of baptism, this act signifies the resurrection of the believer to a new life in Christ. That is why baptism in the New Testament is always by immersion. This will be our study.

Back: God's Word Transforms
1. What human response, besides believing, is essential to salvation?

Answer: Baptism is the believer's confession of his faith-obedience to Christ and Him crucified. True Christianity is participating in the truth as it is in Christ. This means we identify ourselves with the life, death, and resurrection of Christ.

"And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned." Mark 15:15,16.

Raol Dederen on
The Holy Spirit
2. In what three names should a believer be baptized?

Answer: All three names of the Godhead are involved in the salvation of mankind. God the Father chairs the plan of salvation, Christ is the Savior of the world, and the Holy Spirit is the active agent in the experience of salvation.

"And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, [even] unto the end of the world. Amen." Matth. 28:18-20.
3. Who is the one who really baptizes us into Christ?

Answer: Believers are baptized into the body of Christ by the Holy Spirit. The expression "made to drink into one Spirit" means we have experienced the new birth and are now born from above. Through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, we receive the life of Christ and have become one with Him (see 1.Cor. 12:12,27).

"For as the body is one, and hath many members, and all the members of that one body, being many, are one body: so also is Christ. For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit." . . . "Now ye are the body of Christ, and members in particular." 1.Cor. 12:12,13,27.
4. What does Paul say to us if we have not experienced the new birth?

Answer: Only when we have experienced the new birth and have the Spirit of Christ dwelling in us are we truly Christians and stand justified by faith.

"But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his." Rom. 8:9.
5. What does it mean to be baptized into Christ?

Answer: To "put on Christ" means identifying yourself with Christ, as if He is you and you are Christ. This is what Christ meant when He told His disciples that they are to abide in Him and He in them (see John 15:4).

"For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ." . . . "Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; no more can ye, except ye abide in me. " Gal. 3:27; Jh. 15:4.
6. What should every baptized Christian confess?

Answer: True baptism says, "Not I, but Christ." Every Christian must confess with Paul, "I have been crucified with Christ; it is no longer I who lives, but Christ lives in me." This is what it means to walk in the Spirit (see Gal. 2:20, 5:16).

"I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me." . . . "This I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh." Gal. 2:20, 5:16.
7. As Christians, who should be controlling our lives?

Answer: Before conversion, we had only one life, the life of the sinful nature. But now that we have surrendered that life to the cross of Christ, we should allow the new life of the Spirit to control us. This process we must repeat daily.

"And if Christ [be] in you, the body [is] dead because of sin; but the Spirit [is] life because of righteousness." Romans 8:10.
8. In what sense are believers baptized into Christ?

Answer: When the phrase "baptized into Christ" is used in the Bible, it is not referring to the act of baptism but to its experience. When we are baptized into Christ, we are also baptized into His death. His death becomes our death (to sin).

"Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ were baptized into his death?" Rom. 6:3.
9. How should believers who are baptized into Christ walk?

Answer: In this world we begin with life and end with death. Through the gospel we experience the very opposite. We begin with death to our old life of sin and in exchange receive the eternal life of Christ.

"Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life." Rom. 6:4.
10. What will be our experience if we identify with Christ's death?

Answer: Our union with Christ by baptism is as two branches being grafted together so that they become one. His death and resurrection become the heritage of all believers.

"For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection." Rom. 6:5.
11. What is destroyed or done away with when one is baptized into Christ?

Answer: The original text actually says: ". . . that the body of sin might be `deprived of its power' or `rendered inoperative'." Through the new birth experience, we receive a life that is able to subdue the old life of sin. This is what makes holy living possible.

"Knowing this, that our old man is crucified with [him], that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin." Rom. 6:6.
12. What are we freed from when we die with Christ in baptism?

Answer: The actual word used is "justified" which also means freed or acquitted. The law of God condemns sinners to death (see Rom. 6:23). The moment we identify ourselves with the death of Christ by faith and baptism, the law no longer condemns us. Now we are free from the condemnation of the law (see Rom. 8:1). This is what gives us peace with God (see Rom. 5:1).

"For he that is dead is freed from sin." Rom. 6:7.
13. What is the ultimate hope of those who have been baptized into Christ?

Answer: If we choose to die with Christ by faith and baptism, we have the hope of the resurrection. Christ has conquered the grave and His resurrection now becomes the blessed hope of the believer (see Phil. 3:20,21).

"Now if we be dead with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with him." Rom. 6:8.
14. Who is the source of our resurrection to the new life in Christ?

Answer: Our part in salvation is faith, from the beginning to end (see Rom. 1:17). God does the operation. The moment we believe in Christ, God sends the Holy Spirit to dwell in us and we live in His power.

"Buried with him in baptism, wherein also ye are risen with [him] through the faith of the operation of God, who hath raised him from the dead." Col. 2:12.
15. What is one of the blessings we receive when we die with Christ?

Answer: God is just in forgiving all our sins because we died in Christ. That death paid the wages of our sin (see Rom. 3:24-26). To be forgiven of all our sins is one of the great privileges we receive when we are baptized into Christ.

"And you, being dead in your sins and the uncircumcision of your flesh, hath he quickened together with him, having forgiven you all trespasses." Col. 2:13.
16. What experience of the Jews does Paul use as a model of salvation?

Answer: Paul is using the exodus of the Jews from Egypt to Canaan as a type of salvation. The crossing of the Red Sea is a type of baptism. Moses symbolized Christ; therefore, Egypt symbolized the world. Pharaoh symbolized Satan, Canaan symbolized the kingdom of heaven or saying it another way, the Promised Land is a figure of the church, ecclesia, a called out people (from the world, Jh. 15:19), the realm of God, 1.Cor. 10:1-11.

"Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; And were all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea; And did all eat the same spiritual meat; And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ." 1.Cor. 10:1-4.
17. Why did many of the Jews of the Exodus die in the wilderness?

Answer: Although the Jews had physically crossed the Red Sea, having been delivered from their slavery in Egypt, and were now heading for the Promised Land, the hearts of many of them were still in Egypt. Their act of baptism in crossing the Red Sea was therefore not genuine. In the same way, Paul is saying that the act of baptism does not save unless it is a heart response to the gospel.

"But with many of them God was not well pleased: for they were overthrown in the wilderness." 1.Cor. 10:5.
Another example of Scripture's use of the Exodus as a type of baptism is found in the story of Joshua (Joshua 4:1-9). "And . . . the sons of Israel ... took up 12 stones from the middle of the Jordan, just as the Lord spoke to Joshua, according to the number of the tribes of the sons of Israel; and they carried them over with them to the lodging place, and put them down there.
Then Joshua set up 12 stones in the middle of the Jordan at the place where the feet of the priests who carried the Ark of the Covenant were standing, and they are there to this day." (Josh. 4:8,9).
Those 12 stones represented the church or congregation. The sinful life of Egypt, which the Jews had brought with them, could not be taken into Canaan; it had to be buried in the Jordan. Only the new resurrected life, which God offers us in Christ, can enter heaven. Crossing the Jordan River represents true baptism.
18. What event does Peter use to describe our salvation by baptism?

Answer: The ark which Noah built represents Christ. Only the 8 people who entered in were saved when the flood came. In the same way, only those who enter into Christ by faith and baptism will be saved when this wicked world is destroyed by fire (see 2.Thess. 1:7-10). Baptism does not change our sinful natures but changes our (individual) status from condemnation unto death to justification unto life.

"For Christ also hath once suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us to God, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit: By which also he went and preached unto the spirits in prison; Which sometime were disobedient, when once the longsuffering of God waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was a preparing, wherein few, that is, eight souls were saved by water. The like figure whereunto [even] baptism doth also now save us (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the answer of a good conscience toward God,) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ." 1.Peter 3:18-21.
Consider this: When Noah and his family build the ark and entered it, they were in the minority; when they exited the ark, they were in the majority.

Raol Dederen on
The Holy Spirit
19. Why does Paul glory in the cross of Christ?

Answer: The three basic drives that control worldly people are "the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life" (1.Jh. 2:16).
Through the cross of Christ, a believer has said good-bye to all three (see Gal. 5:24). It is not the act of baptism, but our union with Christ crucified, buried, and resurrected, symbolized by baptism, that saves us. In this, we glory!

"But God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom the world is crucified unto me, and I unto the world." Gal. 6:14.
20. On hearing the gospel, what request did the Ethiopian eunuch make?

Answer: This Ethiopian, a Jew by religion, had come to celebrate the Passover feast in Jerusalem. On his way back, he was reading the book of Isaiah when Philip approached him. The Ethiopian requested Philip to join him and explain whom the prophet Isaiah was talking about. Philip took this opportunity to preach Christ and Him crucified. The Ethiopian's heart was convicted and as a result, the first Gentile was baptized into the Christian church.

"And as they went on their way, they came unto a certain water: and the eunuch said, See, here is water; what doth hinder me to be baptized? And Philip said, If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest. And he answered and said, I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. And he commanded the chariot to stand still: and they went down both into the water, both Philip and the eunuch; and he baptized him." Acts 8:36-38.
21. Would you like to make a similar request and have a pastor or church member visit you?

The Question to act upon: To obey the gospel from the heart means you are changing your spiritual citizenship from the world under Satan to God's kingdom under Christ. Is it your desire to publicly confess this by being baptized?

22. One last consideration. Many who have never studied or understood the nature of the Christian religion, the Mormons, Muslims, Buddhists and Hindus - those who do not understand the real nature of the Christian religion feel that their salvation is dependent on adherence to some type of ceremony or a ritual. There are millions and millions of people in the world under this mistaken notion.
And so, they believe, for instance, that you must be baptized or you are going to go to hell. Now, being baptized is important. Jesus said, "He that believes and is baptized will be saved and he that believes not will be damned or condemned." (See Mark 16:16.)
But going through the ceremony itself is not what saves you. You see, there will be millions of people from throughout history in hell fire who have been baptized. Are you aware of that? There will be millions of people in hell fire who have been in many communions. Millions and millions. Why? Because no ritual, no ceremony can save anyone because God's kingdom is spiritual. The thing that matters is our character. It is character that decides our destiny.
Did this Bible Study answer questions for you? Was it presented in clarity? Do you have more questions? Please let us know (
The Tabernacle Sanctuary Layout Emphasizing the Two Centers
The Tabernacle Layout
The Temple Court measured 100 x 50 cubits, Exodus 27:18. The size of the tabernacle tent is not stated only that the altar of burnt offerings measured 5 x 5 cubits, Ex. 27:1. This plan chose for the inside dimensions of the tabernacle 36 x 12 cubits. If the tabernacle was 36 cubits long, then a comfortable space remains between all other items: between the entrance and the altar, between the altar and the brass basin and the entrance to the tent, between the rear of the tent and the court curtain. The important lesson we learn from this arrangement is that God never does anything in vagueness, all parts together demonstrate God's Plan of Salvation. We notice that in the center of the forecourt stood the great altar and at the center of the second court stood the Ark of the Covenant. That means that the forecourt teaches the cross, and the second square teaches the truths that God's law is holy, and those aspects which are part of the `Day of Atonement' which occurred once a year on a defined date. The Book of Hebrews teaches that before He comes again, He will apply His saving blood only once. Most churches teach the truths relating to the forecourt, but eventually God would want to direct the attention of His people to the centrality of His Law inside the Ark of the Covenant, which represents His character and which is the foundation of His government. These two messages we are called to give to the world; to prepare a people for whom Christ died already, to exercise faith and be cleansed before they meet Christ when He comes again in His glory, that of the Father and all the holy angels.
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